1- Research Requirements Attached. 2- Research Proposal Attached.
3- Please use some Law Articles. 3- You have to choose a one country of capitalism and one country of socialism (choose any counties but not china please). 4- This is a law comparative research.
Bernstein and Democratic Socialism
democratic state +socialist economy
Public ownership and control of the economy combined with a democratic government
Relationship between democracy, socialism and capitalism various combinations
capitalist economy +democratic state
capitalist economy+authoritarian state
socialist economy+democratic state
socialist economy+authoritarian sate
Democratic socialists usually argue that democracy and socialism are inseparable
Their logic goes something like this. If the people are going to own and control the means of production they will inevitably do so through a government. Therefore the government must be democratic. How else could the people control the economy? Authoritarian socialism is not true socialism Democratic socialists usually argue that capitalism is incompatible with democracy. The economic inequality that is essential to capitalism undermines the political equality that is essential to democracy.
So they are saying that you cannot have socialism without democracy and You cannot have democracy without socialism.
Most conservatives and libertarians argue that capitalism, with its emphasis on individualism, economic liberty, private property and the free market, is the only economic system compatible with democracy. From their perspective socialism expands government and threatens liberty.
Many liberals would say that it just depends. There are authoritarian socialist states and democratic socialist states. The are authoritarian capitalist states and democratic capitalist states.
Can you think of examples of these combinations?
Democratic socialists are often Marxists but usually not Leninists. Of course, the Leninists accuse them of “revisionism”. Also there are many democratic socialists who do not identify as Marxists.
How does democratic socialism differ from Marxism/Leninism ?
1. Evolution rather than revolution.
Socialism can be achieved peacefully through gradual reform. In those capitalist societies with democratic institutions(parties, elections, parliaments) socialists should work within that system.
Workers should form their own political party to compete with the capitalist parties Use civil liberties like freedom of speech, press and assembly.
Speak out on issues, offer alternatives, propose reforms Run candidates for office, get elected and govern
2. There will probably never be a pure (classless)communist society
The state will not wither away, but that is fine, provided that the socialist state is a democratic state.
Indeed socialists may lose elections and some-but not all-of their reforms will be undone. However, they will continue as the peaceful opposition, criticize the government, offer alternatives, win the next election, govern the country and move it closer to the ideals of socialism.
As you may noted in your reading, Lenin thinks that this evolutionary approach will never succeed. Revolution is necessary.
Eduard Bernstein is a major figure in history of democratic socialism He was the leader of the German Social Democratic Party(SPD).
He wrote Evolutionary Socialism, published in 1899
He was an arch rival of Lenin who calls him a revisionist. In Marxist jargon,
revisionist is usually a pejorative term. For some Marxists, revisionists are heretics.
Is Bernstein a Marxist?
Yes, he is a follower of Marx and Engels but argues that revisions of their
theory and practice are necessary in light of historical changes
The overall theory of historical materialism is sound but it must be revised
and adapted to to take into account significant changes that Marx and
Engels could not have anticipated in 1848.
Some of Marxʼs prediction had simply not come true
Capitalism was not on the verge of collapse
Class warfare is not escalating at a rapid pace
There is a growing middle class between the bourgeoisie and the
proletariat. Perhaps the middle class and the proletariat can be allies on some issues
Reforms are taking place extension of the suffrage(right to vote) growth of unions
some laws regarding child labor
Some capitalist privileges are being slowly eroded as workers gain power
Thus in this period the emphasis should be on the political struggle between the classes and the extension of democracy
Quoting Engels who was Marxʼs co-author and closest collaborator
What is the relationship between socialism and liberalism?
From the perspective of orthodox Marxism liberals are enemies.
Why ? How would this be even more true for Lenin?
Bernstein agrees that liberals are enemies when they support capitalist
interests but they are allies when the support the workers
Putting this into contemporary context, a democratic socialist would argue
that liberals are allies when they support universal health care, but they are
enemies when they support the insurance or the pharmaceutical interests.
Bernstein does believe that classic liberalism developed as a capitalist
ideology. That its historic task was to create the political conditions for
Nevertheless, and this is crucial, even while liberalism was a bourgeoise
ideology it still advocated progressives values such as freedom and
Indeed for Bernstein, democratic socialism is the fulfillment of liberalism
What would Lenin say about that?
Bernstein Rejects the Dictatorship of the Proletariat
This is a major break from both Lenin and Marx
For Bernstein the transitional state must be democratic for everyone
Members of the bourgeoisie will lose much of the power and privilege that
they held under capitalism, but they will not lose their political rights.
Indeed, they might use those rights to win the next election, but hey, thatʼs
For Lenin, and probably for Marx, this is a grave error. The proletariat must
use its power to crush the last remnants of the bourgeoisie.
Brief interlude from “recent” history In the early 1970ʻs the people of Chile
elected a socialist government led by Salvador Allende. Reforms were
instituted. However, in a military coup, backed by the economic elites and
the CIA, the democratic government was overthrown. For a number of
years after that Chile was a dictatorship. No doubt Lenin or Castro would
have said, “that is what happens when you let your enemies stick around”
But for Bernstein democratic socialism requires democracy
Universal suffrage is crucial
It can be a tool for the workers, it enables them to form a party,
run candidates, win elections, pass reforms, achieve the goals
Nationalism Here is another break from orthodox Marxism. Marx had stressed that socialism was an international movement “Workers of the world unite, you have nothing to lose but your chains” For example, why should German workers fight French workers in a war that makes the capitalists rich? Capitalists put their class interests above the nation, workers should do the same. The worker has no country
Bernstein argues that while this might have been true in the 1840ʼs, it no
Now that workers are citizens, with rights, they do have a stake in their
country Of course socialists should oppose unjust wars. But if the war is just it
should be supported.
Thus, in World War I, German socialists did support their country’s war effort. Some saw this as the death knell of international socialism As you might guess Lenin was outraged, But then again, the non-socialist.
German government let Lenin pass through their territory, so that he could
return to Russia and stoke the flames of revolution.
Ultimate Aim of Democratic Socialism?
It is clear that this form of socialism is not utopian. A pure communist society(“imagine all the people sharing all the world”) will not be achieved.
In some respects, the movement itself is the ultimate goal. Each stage in the evolution of social democracy will set immediate goals appropriate to the historical situation. Short term reforms will benefit workers while extending democracy . Communism will never be achieved, but society can move closer to the values of socialism and democracy. Or so it is argued.
What do you think?
Points to Ponder
Notice that I slipped in the term term social democracy. What does that
mean? Does it describe democratic socialism or does it describe a democracy that mixes some elements of capitalism(privately owned companies, market economy) with some elements of socialism (generous safety net including universal health care, affordable education, unemployment benefits, livable minimum wage, anti poverty
programs, and efforts to minimize economic inequality)
How would Lenin and Bernstein evaluate Scandinavian social democracy?
How would Lenin and Bernstein(or the intellectual descendants) evaluate
socialism in Cuba and Venezuela.
Where doe China fit into all of this?
What would Lenin and Bernstein(or the intellectual descendants) think of
what Bernie Sanders and his supporters call “Our Revolution”
Many western democracies have strong traditions of democratic socialism.
They have socialist-or at least social democratic-parties that actually win
elections, govern the country and implement reforms. Why has this not
happened in the United States? Is that changing? Why?
Bernie Sanders and Elizabeth Warren agree on many important
issues. Indeed, the policies they propose are quite similar. Yet he is a
democratic socialist and she is a “capitalist to her bones” Is this just a
difference in terminology, a difference in tactics, or is there a real difference
between their political philosophies?
Presumably if Bernstein was living in contemporary America he would
support Sanders. If Joe Biden is the Democratic nominee against Trump,
would he get Bernsteinʼs vote?
If Lenin were around what would he think of Sanders, Biden and Trump?
Much of this has focused on socialists and liberals. If you are a conservative, or a libertarian what do you think of Lenin and what do you think of Bernstein?
One more thing. Socialists are sometimes accused of over emphasizing
issue of class and do not place sufficient emphasis on race and gender.
What do you think?