Response for two students
In the early nineteenth century, and for more than a century to come, most Americans gave birth and endured illness andÂ even surgery at home. They belonged to a largely rural society, and few among them would ever have occasion to visit aÂ hospital. Hospitals in the United States emerged from institutions, notably almshouses, that provided care and custody forÂ the ailing poor. New health care technologies offer the promise of improved health and longevity, but also are widelyÂ viewed as the biggest contributor to rising health care costs in the U.S. This duality raises the question of whether newÂ technologies are worth the cost and how the rate of health care innovation can be slowed if the costs of new technology
exceed the benefits. It is our role and responsibility to lead this change, and we will lead. At the same time, we understandÂ the importance of engaging partners who are also committed to improving our health care system. Patients, physicians andÂ other providers, government, and businesses all have a stake in this effort. Integrated health systems are considered part ofÂ the solution to the challenge of sustaining Canadaâs healthcare system. This systematic literature review was undertaken to
guide decisionmakersÂ and others to plan for and implement integrated health systems.
In the United States, cities established isolation hospitals in the mid seventeen hundreds, and lmshouses devoted to theÂ sick or infirm came into being in larger towns. However, almshouses were not intended to serve strictly medical cases sinceÂ they also provided custodial care to the poor and destitute. Benjamin Franklin was instrumental in the founding ofÂ Pennsylvania Hospital in 1751, the nationâs first such institution to treat medical conditions. For most of the nineteenthÂ century, only the socially marginal, poor, or isolated received medical care in institutions in the United States. WhenÂ middle orÂ upperclass
people got sick, their families nursed them at home. Surgery was often performed in the patientâs
homes. By late in the century, as society became more and more industrialized and mobile and as medical practices grewÂ in their sophistication and complexity, the notion that responsible families and caring communities took care of their ownÂ became more difficult to apply. The result was a gradual shift toward the professionalization of healthcareÂ practices thatÂ eventually included the development of a full and competitive commercial market for medical services that increasinglyÂ took place in hospitals. Advances in medical technology have contributed to rising overall U.S. health care spending.As
stated on Kaiser Family Foundation âRettig describes how new medical technology affects the costs of health care throughÂ the following âmechanisms of action:
Development of new treatments for previously untreatable terminal conditions, including longterm
maintenance therapy forÂ treatment of such diseases as diabetes, endstage
renal disease, and AIDSÍ¾
Major advances in clinical ability to treat previously untreatable acute conditions, such as coronary artery bypass graftÍ¾
Development of new procedures for discovering and treating secondary diseases within a disease, such as erythropoietin
to treat anemia in dialysis patientsÍ¾
Expansion of the indications for a treatment over time, increasing the patient population to which the treatment is appliedÍ¾Â Ongoing,Â incremental improvements in existing capabilities, which may improve qualityÍ¾Â Clinical progress, through major advances or by the cumulative effect of incremental improvements, that extends the scopeÂ of medicine to conditions once regarded as beyond its boundaries, such as mental illness and substance abuse.
The various organizational models developed to curb health care expenditures are:
The Beveridge Model: In this system, health care is provided and financed by the government through tax paymentsÂ The Bismarck Model: It uses an insurance system â the insurers are called âsickness fundsâ â usually financed jointly byÂ employers and employees through payroll deduction.
The National Health Insurance Model: This system has elements of both Beveridge and Bismarck. It uses private sectorÂ providers, but payment comes from a governmentrun
insurance program that every citizen pays into.
Model: The basic rule in such countries is that the rich get medical careÍ¾ the poor stay sick or die.
There are multiple benefits of integration within the health care system. Integration within the healthcare system may
provide savings, it will provide a range of services in one location which are not disjointed for the user and which the userÂ can easily navigate. It will allow for patients to receive coordinated care, rather than having separate visits for separateÂ interventions.
I need response for two students Student A and student B
please do the responses separately on one page
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