reality as the first thing and saying thank you as the last thing is the
responsibility of a leader (Mash, 2011).
The balance between these two terms defines the roles of a leader as a
servant and a debtor. In simple terms, a leader is a person who guides a group
of people in achieving a shared vision. A public leader is a person who holds a
public office and guides as well as serves the community. From the key terms in
leadership definition, a leader owes the subjects several things such as;
covenant to help them achieve their shared visions, sense of freedom in
enabling their gifts to be exercised, and values of the community or
organization. A public leader must be a steward of assets, relationship, legacy,
and effectiveness of the community (Mango, 2018). The economic strength, relationship,
and reputations to sustain this economy should be the greatest concern of a
public leader. Various theories have been put forward to explain leadership in
different domains, but there are some that are more prevalent in public
sectors. These theories include; contingency theory, right man theory,
servant-leadership, and grassroots leadership.
Theory of Leadership
theory is attributed to Robert K. Greenleaf from his essay, Servant as Leader
first published in 1970. From the essay, Greenleaf suggested that a
servant-leader must be a servant first mentality in the sense that one must be
willing to serve before having the conscious that persuades them to lead. Greenleaf
based his judgment between leader first and servant first basis. Greenfield
suggests that a person is driven by leadership his/her mentality is driven by
material possession, while a servant fist leader puts the priorities and the
needs of the people first (Marsh, 2011). The two extreme types are both part of
shadings and blends of a variety of human types according to Greenleaf. The
difference between these two extremes is revealed in the nature of care that a
servant-first leader has in servicing the highest priories of people.
servant leader focuses on the growth and well-being of the people and the
community to which the leader belongs. The test of the success of such a leader
is measured by how much the people or community grow as individuals, the knowledge
gained, health, and freedom gained while the public leader is in service
(Marsh, 2011). The least-privileged in the society are also impacted positively
and must benefit from the service. The difference between a servant-leadership
and traditional leadership is the accumulation and exercise of power. In the
latter, the motive and focus are to gain more power while servant-leaderships emphasizes
power-sharing and prioritizing people’s needs. A servant-leader is committed to
making sure that the development and performance of people are attained. The
main qualities of a servant leader include; listening, persuasion, access to
intuition and foresight, effective communication, and pragmatic measures for the
Theory of Leadership
theory was developed by Fred Fiedler in the year 1958. He suggested that
depending on the proper match between the style of a leader and the degree of
control over the situation results in effective performance. In this regard, leadership
style, situation and the relationship between the two are the primary elements
of this theory. Fiedler proposed two dimensions of leadership that result in
success. These dimensions include
task-oriented and human relationship-oriented leadership styles. He managed to
prove his concept by creating the Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) scale to
measure the basic style of leadership. The scale rates the workers on a scale
of 1 to 8 to find out the worker whom the leader least enjoys working with.
This theory assumes that no leader is appropriate for all situations. As such,
the requirements of the situation or task defines the type of leadership to use
(“Robert K. Greenleaf: a life of servant-leadership”, 2004). More so,
he recommends a perfect match between the leader and the task for effective
performance and success.
Psychological disposition or personality of a leader defines the ability of a leader to execute leadership in a community or organization. The LPC values are summed up to produce a score. Therefore, a high score implies positive attitude of the leader towards human relationship. On the other hand, a low LPC score reflects the nature of the task and the ability leader to facilitate the execution of the task. Fielder’s concludes that low LPC score implies effective leadership irrespective of the situation. The ability of the leader to control a task results in effective leadership from this theory.
the above leadership theories, a leader is defined by the ability to deliver
results and expectations of the group. A good leader is one who provides
service to the community, group or organization. A public leader is defined by
the ability to control the finances of the public and facilitate growth among
his/her subject. Possessing service-oriented values results in the success of
tasks assigned to a leader.
Types of Leadership
A leader should
have a good character and excellent qualities; nonetheless, he/she needs to
apply some of the leadership styles to lead effectively. Leadership styles vary,
particularly, those used in the public domain. Leadership styles may be
classified as transformational, transactional, servant-leadership, autocratic,
Laissez-faire, charismatic, democratic and bureaucratic leadership.
As discussed as a theory, servant leadership is among the most effective styles of leadership. In this leadership style, a leader uses the power-sharing model of command. The priority of the team members is the basic foundation of servant leadership (Burns, 2017). The leadership style encourages collective decision making. For a project like the Public Leadership Academy, this style of leadership is key since they require much planning and organization to succeed in the development of the Leadership Academy project. A leader that can communicate and collaborate is capable of getting new ideas on how to execute the task assigned.
leadership was developed by different management experts Ken Blanchard and Paul
Hersey back in 1969. In this type of leadership, a leader can use a number of
other different styles depending on the environment (Burns, 2017). The task
under progress, seniority of the leader and the complexity of the project
determines the type of leadership to adopt. This style is appropriate in
situations where there are constant changes, and therefore a leader might need
to vary the styles. This style is appropriate in the public sector such as in
the case project.
Burns, W. (2017). A Descriptive Literature Review of Harmful Leadership
Styles: Definitions, Commonalities, Measurements, Negative Impacts, and Ways to
Improve These Harmful Leadership Styles. Creighton Journal Of Interdisciplinary
Leadership, 3(1), 33. doi: 10.17062/cjil.v3i1.53
Mango, E. (2018). Rethinking Leadership Theories. Open Journal of
Leadership, 07(01), 57-88. doi: 10.4236/ojl.2018.71005
Marsh, C. (2011). Book Review: The Jossey-Bass Reader on Nonprofit and
Public LeadershipPerryJ. L. (Ed.). (2010). The Jossey-Bass Reader on Nonprofit
and Public Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 688 pp., $38.00.
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 40(6), 1170-1172. doi:
Robert K. Greenleaf: a life of servant-leadership. (2004). Choice Reviews
Online, 42(04), 42-2303-42-2303. doi: 10.5860/choice.42-2303
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