All this information for my report and please I want to great report and easy reading with references.
Report writing is an essential skill for scientists. This report is a simplification of the traditional
scientific paper. This first opportunity to write a scientific report introduces students to the basic
concepts, logic, structure and content of how scientists communicate in the real world. Scientists
inform each other and the rest of society through the writing of scientific papers. To become a
scientist, it is essential that you can read and write scientific papers. Each scientific paper places the
data collected by the scientist in the context of relevant work published by other scientists. Ethical
scientists must write original papers, not plagiarise material from other sources.
The practical report is an individual report of approximately 1000 words in length that addresses the
requirements as described below. One part of the report is based on class data, not individual data.
The report is to be prepared using a word processing software package and printed double spaced in
12 point font. The printed report is to be stapled in the top left hand corner.
Title (< 20 words, 2 points)
Write a short title for your report that briefly describes its content (2 points).
Part 1 Lichens
Introduction (~150 words, 8 points)
Write a brief introduction to the work about lichens that you will be discussing. Your introduction
must provide general background information that is relevant to the topic under discussion. The
Introduction should NOT contain information that is too general to be directly relevant to the report.
Consequently, do not include a general description of what lichens are. Do include background
information about the habitats in which lichens occur. Where are they found, where are they not
found? Be specific enough to be relevant; not just lichens are found in rainforests or other
ecosystems, but the sorts of specific microhabitats they are found in. Describe the factors that affect
their distribution, provide examples of lichens whose distribution reflects some of these factors.
Results (~50 words + figure and figure legend, 10 points)
Submit a column graph of mean cover of lichens (cell counts) for each aspect (N, E, S, W) of the
plants that were sampled by your practical class. Use the column graph produced for your practical
class. Do NOT make a different graph to the one made for your class. Remember to include a figure
legend for the graph. Make sure that there are appropriate axis labels on your graph. The data must
be presented in a column graph with standard error bars included as in the example below. There are
no colour requirements for the graph (i.e., it can be black and white or any colour you choose).
A figure (a graph is a figure) must have a figure legend placed below it. The legend needs to allocate
the figure a number (which is used to refer to the figure in the text) and a brief description of what
the figure is about (what it shows). As you have only one figure, it will therefore be Figure 1. Each
axis has to be labelled correctly as in the figure below.
Write a paragraph (5 points) that describes what can be seen in the figure. Be specific, but not too
detailed. At least, you need to state the aspect(s) of the trees that had the highest coverage of
lichens and the lowest coverage of lichens. Do NOT discuss why this may have occurred in the Results section.
Figure marking: 5 points composed of 2 points for an appropriate figure legend (free of spelling
mistakes), 1 point for each appropriate axis labels and 1 point for inclusion of correct graph.
Figure 1. Cell counts (mean ± s.e.) for the presence of lichens on the north, east, south and west
aspects of palms on the Hawkesbury Campus of Western Sydney University.
Discussion (~400 words, 25 points)
Write several paragraphs that discuss the results you presented and described in the Results section.
Do NOT describe the results in the Discussion section. Did the results support the null hypothesis or
lead you to reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis (2 points)? Your
discussion needs to provide an examination of possible factors that may have influenced the results
that you reported. Discuss how environmental factors have affected the distribution of lichens around
the tree trunk (8 points). Formulate a new hypothesis about the distribution of lichens around a tree
trunk based on one or more of these factors (5 points). Discuss how lichens been used in scientific
studies of environmental effects and what these studies have shown (5 points). Explain why lichens
are useful indicator organisms for these purposes (5 points).
Part 2 Focal Species for ClimateWatch
Results (~50 words, 5 points)
Briefly list in a table the 5 sightings that you reported to ClimateWatch (5 points). The sightings can
be 5 different focal species or 5 sightings of different individuals of one species in different locations
or any combination of these. See the example below. Do not include the full details of each sighting
within the body of your report; these belong in the Appendix.
Table 1. Focal species sightings reported to ClimateWatch.
Species Common Name
Illawarra Flame Tree
UWS Hawkesbury campus near building G6
6 February 2016
St Andrew’s Cross spider
Buttenshaw Park, Springwood
6 February 2016
Discussion (~200 words, 15 points)
Write one paragraph that discusses how the species that you have reported to ClimateWatch may be
or have been used to record the effects of climate change (5 points). Write several paragraphs that
discuss how focal species (other species, not the ones you have reported) have been used to record
the effects of climate change and what these reports have shown (5 points). Write a paragraph that
explains why it is important to record the phenological stage of focal species for this purpose (5
points). Read the useful sources below.
Conclusion (< 100 words, 5 points)
Write a paragraph that draws your whole report together with a conclusion. What is the common
factor that connects the use of lichens and focal species in relevant scientific studies (5 points)?
References (5 points)
List the details of at least 10 scientific papers (i.e., published in a scientific journal not as a website or
newspaper or magazine article) that have provided you with the information that you have used in
your report (5 points). These papers must be cited in your text using the Harvard nameyear method.
These papers must be listed in alphabetical order by first author in the Reference list. See the
Appendix (10 points)
List the full details (5 points) for the five sightings that you reported to ClimateWatch. Also include
the five photographs (5 points) you uploaded to ClimateWatch. Your records must contain all
required information to be complete. The details required differ for species groups. Make sure you
know what is required before collecting data if you are not using an iPad with a network connection
or a smartphone. Consult the ClimateWatch website for full details required and for descriptions of
the focal species. You can only record details of the ClimateWatch focal species. Once you have
recorded five sightings, logon to the ClimateWatch website and download your sightings as a csv file.
This file can be opened in MS Excel. The data can be copied from Excel and placed in a MS Word
document. To ensure that all of the data appears on the page of your MS Word document, select the
data, then right click and select AutoFit > Autofit to Window. Include this table as an Appendix. Do
not include all of the downloaded details within the body of your report.
Australian Lichens website: https://www.anbg.gov.au/lichen/index.html (Not a scientific paper
You will be assessed on the following:
Included and showing 20% or less similarity with other sources for the text of the report.
Report will be marked
Not included or showing greater than 20% similarity with other sources for the text of the report.
Report will NOT be marked.
Concise and informative descriptor of investigation indicating clearly what was studied. 2 points
Title more lengthy, or less informative.
Title absent, or limited to Practical number. 0 points
Context & background
Context and background to study given concisely and correctly.
6 – 8 points
Context and background given, with some reduced coverage to relevant areas.
4 – 6 points
Basic context and background given.
Inadequate context and background; too brief or important areas omitted, or irrelevant material.
Expression poor/not understandable.
0 – 2 points
Correct graph is used; axes correctly labelled; descriptive figure legend included.
Axes not correctly labelled, descriptive figure legend included.
3 – 4 points
Axes not correctly labelled, figure legend not descriptive.
1 – 2 points
Trends in data
Results described correctly and concisely, with reference to figure.
Results mostly described correctly; minor omissions/errors; or not concise.
3 – 4 points
Results basically described correctly, but with expression less clear, or no reference to data.
Results described incorrectly or no description provided.
0 – 2 points Western Sydney University – Learning Guide 13
Interpretation of results
Evidence from results is related to research questions; environmental factors correctly identified; clear,
concise hypothesis provided; results placed in context by reference to the scientific literature.
20 – 25 points
Evidence from results is related to research questions, but less directly and not concisely; hypothesis
poorly formulated or expressed or omitted; results partially placed in context of the scientific
10 – 20 points
Evidence from results is not used, or used incorrectly, to answer research questions; no new
hypothesis; little or no context of scientific literature.
0 – 10 points
Focal Species Results
Climate Watch sightings
Five focal species correctly reported.
Three or four focal species correctly reported.
3 – 4 points
One or two focal species correctly reported.
1 – 2 points
No focal species reported.
Focal Species Discussion
Use of focal species data
Excellent, clear, concise discussion of use of focal species and importance of phenological data based
on scientific literature.
10 – 15 points
Poor discussion of use of focal species; or poor and / or confused expression; not based on
examination of scientific literature.
6 – 9 points
Little or no discussion of use of focal species; not based on scientific literature.
1 – 5 points
No discussion of use of focal species.
Report drawn together
Excellent conclusion drawing whole report together; excellent clear expression.
4 – 5 points
Poorly expressed conclusion or does not draw two parts together.
1 – 3 points
Scientific papers cited in text and listed
At least 10 scientific papers cited in text and listed alphabetically following conventions of formatting.
Omissions or formatting errors or references not cited in text.
1 – 4 points
References not cited or absent from Reference list.
Full details of five ClimateWatch sightings
Photographs and full details of five focal species correctly reported. 10 points
Photographs and full details of three or four focal species correctly reported.
5 – 9 points
Photographs and full details of one or two focal species correctly reported.
1 – 4 points
No photographs or details of focal species reported.
Western Sydney University – Learning Guide
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