Charging or Issues Systems in Special Libraries in Sierra Leone

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Special libraries are collections that exist to serve the specific needs of their clients. The libraries are varied as their needs. However, the libraries do have common elements in the service that they provide, their focused collections and their knowledgeable staff who are able to adapt to the changing needs of their clients base. The phrase “Special libraries” is a misnomer, because all libraries are special and have commonalities in their functions. This statement does not dispute the fact that some libraries have special concerns-be they of their clientele, their collections or their purpose. A standard definition of a special library would be the one that exist to serve the limited needs of a specific entity- a business, industry, government agency, non-profit group or professional organisations. Also included are subject oriented units of a public or academic library (Beenham and Harrison, 1990).

The collection of special libraries is smaller and tends to be more focused in comparison to public and academic libraries. Special libraries have the tools and the people necessary to make information available to the client because it is not just enough to collect and house information. It must be made accessible to users. A Special library in short is particularised information services which correlates, interprets and utilizes the materials at hand for the constant use and benefit of the organisation it serves (Chirgwin and Oldfield, 1982).

The over-riding requirement of the Special library is that it should provide current information that enables research workers and other employers to carry out their duties effectively. Therefore, it provides not only a collection of materials for which is known demand, but also a network of services that make information readily available for a variety of outside sources.

Previously, the provision of books and other materials for purposes of research had been considered of paramount importance. With the dramatic increase in the number of post-war student in Sierra Leone, it came to be more generally accepted that a university library should aim to serve the needs of their main categories of readers; namely, the undergraduate research worker, and the academic staff.

Definition of Charging or Issues System

According to Berkett and Ritiche (1977), the recording of the loan of materials is called charging or issuing. The charging method selected by a particular library depends to a large extent on the library’s clientele, the size of the stock and the need to restrict the number of items which a library member may have on loan, and on whether the library has peak periods for the lending and returning of materials. The choice of methods will also be affected by the amount and type of information the library staff requires the issue to furnish.

The purpose of a circulation system is to give the library users as much access as possible to the stock. Unfortunately, a book loaned to one reader is not available to others and certain restrictions have to be made. For instance an Encyclopedia is a compendium of knowledge on a vast number of subjects and is designed for easy reference rather than for continuous reading. Allowing such a book on loan would inconvenience a great number of library users without benefitting the borrower.

Each library will use a system for recording the books and other items it lends to its readers. There have been many modern developments to record issues in the last thirty years, mainly due to high cost of staffing, increased usage, and in search of better all-round efficiency. There is no one all-purpose systems which will meet the demands of all kinds of library, although the latest computer charging system can cope with many aspects speedily.

A good system should enable the library staff to discover which reader has borrowed which book. It should show when books are due for return and which are overdue. Some systems can control the number of books issued, and particularly the number which each reader has borrowed. The better systems will permit the book is renewed without returning the book in person, and should allow readers to reserve books which are not immediately available.

Charging or Issues System in Libraries

The Circulation department is the area where most patrons are used to because it is here that library materials are loaned out and returned after use, and it is sometimes referred to as the leading or take home department. Records of patrons are kept here after they have completed a necessary form that provides personal information about them, that is, name, address, sex, status and guarantor. Some departments have different cards for different categories of users to complete. The following functions are however performed by circulation department:

• Registration of new users and keeping the records of library patrons;

• Keeping records of borrowed materials and those returned;

• Noting down when borrowed materials are due back in the library;

• Keeping statistics of the department;

• Sending overdue notices to patrons who fail to return their books when due (Nwogu, 1991).

Types of Charging or Issue Systems used in Libraries

As has been said, one of the principal services offered by libraries is the lending of books and others materials. Obviously, libraries need to keep some kind of record of such loan transactions and many methods have been devised to regulate this task. These methods are known as Charging or Issuing methods. The charging method selected by a particular library depends to a large extent on the library’s clientele, the size of stock and the need to restrict the number of items which a library member may have on loan and on whether the library has peak periods for the lending and returning of material. Here are some examples of charging methods used in varied types of libraries.

The Browne System: For many, many years the most commonly used charging method is the Browne system. With this system, a membership application form is filled in and the reader is given a number of tickets bearing his or her name and address. The reader presents the books to be borrowed at the issue desk, along with a reader’s ticket for each book. The date label in each book is stamped with the date of return; the book card is removed from each book and inserted into the reader’s tickets (one book card per ticket). The charge therefore is one book card inserted into one ticket. When the book is returned, the assistant will look inside it to ascertain from the date label, or pocket, the accession number/author/class number as well as the due date. The appropriate charge is then removed from the issue, the book card replaced in the book pocket and the ticket returned to the reader.

The Islington system: In this charging system, each reader is given one plastic ticket on which is embossed his or her name and address. The stationery inside the library books is the same as the Browne system. However, the difference lies in the fact that the reader must print an address slip (using an embossed ticket) for each book he or she wishes to borrow. Therefore the ‘charge’ is a book card plus a paper address slip inside a blank ticket.

Ticket book or Cheque book charging: In this method, each book has a book pocket permanently fixed inside the cover on which details of the book are given. Within this book pocket is a plain pocket, inside which is a book card bearing details of the book. The reader need only insert one of his or her ticket slip into the plain pocket and present the book for date stamping. The assistant removes the ‘charge’ and it is subsequently filed. The issue trays are usually kept in a separate ‘discharge room’ and not at the issue desk. There is a reception desk where the books are returned, the actual discharging being done later in the ‘discharging room’ when the charge is removed from the issue, the reader’s ticket destroyed and the plain pocket and book card returned to the book. An additional ‘cheque book’ is issued to the reader whenever the previous one is used up.

Token Charging: The book date label is stamped in the usual way, and the reader must surrender one token for each book being issued. On returning the books, the reader merely receives the appropriate number of tokens in exchange. At the end of each year the reader must be able to produce the full complement of tokens or pay a replacement cost for any which have been lost. A visible index (that is a list of reserved books which must be checked whenever books are returned) is used for reservations.

Punched card charging: when a book is borrowed, the assistant takes two punched cards, pre-dated with date due for return (both punched and dated stamped), places the two punched cards in an automatic key punched machine and punches on both cards the reader’s number and book accession number and class number. One card is retained as the library’s record of loans; the other card is inserted in the book pocket with the date of return clearly visible. The punched cards are removed from returned books, sorted into accession number order by machine, and then matched by machine with the duplicate cards kept as the library’s record of loans. Unmatched cards represents books still out on loan and these can be refilled mechanically, this time in date order to reveal overdue.

Computerised Issuing System: Computer systems now available in libraries are very advanced indeed. The issue terminal is equipped with a data pen to which may be attached a self-inking date stamp. There is a card holder into which the reader’s ticket is inserted. Charging is accomplished by running the data pen horizontally across the bar code on the reader’s ticket and the across the barcode labels on the books to be borrowed. The date labels in the book are stamped with the date of return and the ticket is returned to the reader. The discharge terminal is also equipped with another data pen and this is used to read the books’ bar code labels when they are returned. The reader’s ticket is not required at this stage as the reader’s name will be automatically deleted from the computer records when all books are have been returned(Beenham, and Harrison 1990).

Charging or Issue System at the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences Library

The College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences (COMAHS) was founded on the 12th April, 1988 by the Government of Sierra Leone in Co-operation with the Nigerian government and the World Health Organisation (WHO). With the enactment and coming into effect of the 2005 University Act, which led to the creation of two universities in Sierra Leone, College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences as a constituent arm of the University of Sierra Leone, in cooperation with the National School of Nursing, which is now a faculty and the Pharmacy Technician School, also part of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

The College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences library started a few months after the college was established in 1988. The library was first located at Bass Street, in Brookfields and later transferred to New England in Freetown, from where it was finally transferred to the Connaught Hospital, when the Ministry of Health gave up the building it used to occupy as a library.

The College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences library was started by a Medical Librarian by the name of Nancy M’Jamtu-Sie in 1988. The library holds the main stock of Medical and Health Sciences materials in the University of Sierra Leone. The library depends solely on donations and it operates on three sites: the main Medical library at the Connaught Hospital which houses the library administrative office, short loan, reference, World Health Organisation audio cassettes collection; the CD-ROM and Internet facilities, the multidisciplinary library at the National School of Nursing, houses the general collection and as well as short loan and reference books and the Medical Sciences library at the Kossoh Town Campus.

The mission of College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences is: “to train community-oriented doctors, pharmacists, nurses, laboratory scientists, and the health personnel with sound professional and managerial skills suitably qualified to meet international standards and capable to undertake research and pursue training in specialised areas for health care delivery services.”

The College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences practices the Browne Issue System mentioned above, which is practiced in most libraries especially Special libraries found in the University of Sierra Leone. With the Browne Charging or Issuing system at the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences library, each library book has a book card which is kept in a pocket inside each book. The card identifies each book by recording, usually the accession number, classification number, author and short title. Each reader has a ticket issued to him/her which indicates the name and address. This reader’s ticket holds the book card, which is taken from the pocket in the book, and this forms the record of the issue. Each book is stamped with the date for return and the issue is filed in trays under the date due for return, and within what date probably by accession number.

When the readers return the book, the date due for stamped on the date label locates the correct date among the issue trays and the accession number printed on the date label should find the correct position within that date. The book card is then returned to the book, which is now ready for shelving and the reader recovers his tickets. Overdue books are self-evident since the trays are in date order, and reservation are made searching the appropriate care in an obvious way. The Brown system is simply operated and easily understood by library staff and readers alike.

Clientele or Users of College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences Library

A clientele in library is a body of customers or patrons that makes use of a library in order to get needed information. The clientele of a library are highly knowledgeable group. Consequently, the emphasis of the library is on maintaining considerable depth of subject material or supplying information to be in print.All members of the University of Sierra Leone who are allowed to use the College of Medicine and Allied Health Science library must register with the library and obtain a membership card. External readers are allowed to use the library for reference purposes but would not be given borrowing facilities.

At the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences library, most of the books are available to users for loan period and the number of books loaned varies. The book stock covers basic medical sciences, biology, physiology, biochemistry and all disciplines of medicine. Books are borrowed to both students and staff for specific period of time.

Challenges of Charging or Issue System used at the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences Library

Special Libraries in Sierra Leone, especially College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences Library are not without challenges.

Space Challenge: The three sites where the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences library operates have been observed to be very small with reference to the building. The locations of these sites especially with ones at National School of Nursing which houses the general collection as well as short loan and reference books; and the Medical Sciences library at the Kossoh Town campus, are not seen as favourable in terms of their locations. They do not offer convenient access for all staff and clients. Shelving and storage has not been conveniently located.

Financial Status: The financial standing of the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences library has been very unsatisfactorily especially when the management cannot meet with its obligation of taking care of the library’s itinerary. This has led to the library not having updated collections. This has been seen in the area of salaries, which has been very poor, operational costs, subscriptions, acquisitions, training and professional development.

Insufficient Materials: Materials at College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences are inadequate to meet the needs of its users. Materials are mainly acquired through donations as the library does not have enough funds to purchase materials in order to meet the needs of its users.

Inadequate computers and limited Internet Service: There are no adequate computers and strong internet connectivity sufficient enough to service the numerous clienteles. At the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences library, the inadequate number of available computers does not allow the library to operate the Computer charging or issuing system which is more advance and easier to operate than the Browne charging system which the library currently uses. The Internet service provided is also not sufficient to handle the high number of both their students, staff and other users.

Lack of adequate trained and qualified staff: The College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences library is short of adequate trained and qualified Librarians which have rendered the library ineffective in the area of properly disseminating information to users. The library is only made up of two qualified librarians and additional staff consists of a technician, clerks, cleaners and messengers.

Conclusively, the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences library as a Special library in the University of Sierra Leone has been able to meet the information needs of the many users with the Browne Issue system that it operates on. However, the collection is not updated and the service is not excellent enough to satisfy the clientele that it caters for. The College library lacks enough funds to purchase updated materials. The services of the library have not been too satisfactorily and this is due to few trained personnel and limited facilities. In spite of these challenges at College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences library, the Browne charging or Issue System has proven to be the therapy that has salvage the issue of delivery of services to their clients and the due preservation of their materials.

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Source by Solomon Sellu

Five Things You Need to Know About Your Physician Customer

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Many times in the selling process we are so focused on what we need to accomplish that we forget about the wants and needs of our customer, the doctor. As our time with the doctor has diminished in the past few years to about 80 seconds per call we tend to focus even more acutely on our agenda rather than what our customer needs from us. During this article, I would like to concentrate on five things you need to know about your physician customer.

Doctors are Problem Solvers

Think about what doctors do every day. They walk into an exam room and ask the patient, “What’s the trouble?” or “What brings you here today?” They are looking for the problem that brought the patient into their office. They begin to ask questions to understand the problem, gather data through exams and diagnostics tests, and ultimately put a treatment plan in place to solve the problem. This is the world the doctor lives in every day of their lives. Dr. Michael Kessler has taught this concept for years in his training classes. I was facilitating a large doctor/rep role-play with one of the Big Pharma companies a couple of years ago. During the break I walked over to one of the doctors and asked what she liked about what the representatives were doing. She replied, “I hate it when they walk in and start asking questions!” I thought, Oh no, probing is a part of every pharma sales model in the world! When the next representative came in to call on this doctor, the representative started with this question. “Doctor, when treating disease X, what side effect is most important for you to avoid?” The doctor stated that GI upset was most important to her. The rep presented how her product’s features and benefits could solve this problem and closed. The doctor agreed to write her product for those patients who were experiencing GI upset. I waited anxiously to hear the doctor’s feedback to a rep who had done exactly what she just told me she hated. I thought, boy is she gonna get it! But she didn’t! In fact the doctor said it was one of the best presentations she had heard that day. After the rep left I asked the doctor to explain to me why she praised a representative who began her call with a question when she had just told me she hated questions. The doctor said, “That’s easy, within the first fifteen seconds she discovered a problem that I was experiencing that her drug could solve.” Since doctors are problem solvers we need to present our products as solutions to problems the doctor may be experiencing!

Doctors Make Decisions Based on Scientific Evidence

Doctors are scientist and make decisions using unbiased scientific evidence not marketing information. When a doctor is trying to discover what pathology a patient is presenting with during an office visit they gather as much scientific information as they can. They do this by taking a history and physical and conducting a battery of tests such as blood chemistry, EKG, x-rays and the like. The point is that all of this information is unbiased scientific information. They have been taught to do this from med school. The same is true when doctors are making decisions to switch to a different drug. Doctors need and want unbiased scientific information. Some examples of unbiased scientific information would be clinical studies, peer review clinical journals and package inserts. A survey conducted by Accenture in 2003 stated that 80% of Doctors said that Peer Review/Clinical Journals had the most influence on their prescribing habits. Med Ad News in February of 2005 reported that “The key to providing long-term meaningful relationships is focusing on providing meaningful resources, especially clinical data, to doctors and their staff members.” Every year when Health Strategies Group presents their Access Report “The ability to present clinical data in a manner that is clear and easy to understand” ranks in the top ten things doctors want in a sales representative. Doctors are scientists and need unbiased scientific information to make a decision to use your product. When presenting to a doctor use clinical studies, peer review journal articles and other unbiased scientific information. Give them what they have told us for years they need not what you think they need to hear!

Doctors Listen When Sales Representatives Present Benefits

Doctors reported in a focus group that they listen when a sales representative says,”What this means to you…” or “The benefit to your patient is…” I have seen this over and over in person observing doctor/rep role-plays. The reason is simple. Benefits solve problems and doctors are problem solvers! The old adage that features tell and benefits sell is applicable here. Here is an example of how benefits solve problems. Let’s assume that the problem a doctor is struggling with is allergy patients complaining of getting breakthrough symptoms between doses of a BID medication. The feature of longer duration of action does not solve this problem but the benefit of longer allergy symptom relief does solve the problem of breakthrough allergy symptoms. The way you would want to word the features and benefits during your presentation is, “Doctor, Zamfir has a longer duration of action than your current medication.” “What this means to your patient is they will get longer allergy symptom relief alleviating the problem of breakthrough symptoms.” Unfortunately research says that a typical sales representative will present 7-8 features before they mention 1 benefit. Try presenting benefits with features on your next call and watch the doctor look up when you say, “Doctor, what this means to your patient is…..”

Doctors are Taught to Communicate in a Certain Way

Every medical professional has been taught a standard way of communicating medical information. It is called SOAP. Doctors use this process to document clinical information, present patient cases and clinical papers and communicate patient information. Let me give you an example. If you have ever watched any of the medical shows on television such as Grey’s Anatomy you have probably seen an EMT Team handing a patient off to an ER Team and heard a conversation such as this. “I have an adult whit male approximately 46 years of age, BP is 130 over 90, pulse is 82, we suspect possible MI, recommend 10 mg of Epi.” The S stands for Subjective. The subjective information is an adult white male approximately 46 years of age. The O stands for Objective. The Objective information comes from the data they gathered during their work up; BP 130 over 90, pulse 82. The A stands for Assessment and is the medical team’s diagnosis; possible myocardial infarction. Finally the P stands for Plan. In this case the recommended treatment Plan is an injection of 10 mg of epinephrine. Every clinical study is set up this way. The subjective sets up the problem the study is addressing. The objective gives the vital information about the study such as author, journal, date and number of patients in the study. The Assessment reports the results of the study. And the plan gives the author’s recommendations. Two very practical ways to use this healthcare communication tool is to present your product and clinical study information in this format. When presenting your product information set up a problem your product can solve, solve that problem using your products features and benefits, probe to enter into a dialogue with the doctor and close for the doctor to use your product for those patients experiencing that particular problem. When using this format to present a clinical study set up the problem, provide the study information (author, journal, date and study data) report the results and the author’s recommendations. By using this universal language when speaking to all healthcare professionals you will gain credibility and be able to present information in a clear, concise manner. I have trained many people to present a clinical study in 30 seconds using this format. If you were a bilingual sales representative you would never present to a Spanish speaking doctor in English. Now that you understand the doctor’s language, stop speaking your native tongue of sales and begin to speak their language and watch their prescribing behavior change!

Doctors Expect You to Close, So Do It Right

The new hires are afraid to close and the tenured reps don’t want to harm their good relationship by closing hard. In reality, Best Practices Studies reveal that representatives who close consistently are more successful than those who don’t. The fact is doctors expect sales reps to close and actually anticipate it. Over the years through surveys and focus groups doctors have told us what they like and dislike about how we close. Below you will find information we have compiled from physician focus groups on what your physicians want and don’t want from a sales rep during the close.

Don’t Ask for the Next 10 Scripts

We have all been trained and evaluated on asking the doctor for the next ten scripts. So why do doctors hate this close so much? Because it is not practical for them to guarantee you that the next ten patients who walk through their door will be good candidates for your drug. Remember a close is simply asking the doctor to do something. It can be asking them to read a clinical study or a journal article. Be creative! A more practical close would be to ask the doctor to write for your drug for patients experiencing a problem your drug can solve.

Don’t ask for 100% of scripts

Doctors see this close as unrealistic and greedy because no drug will work for 100% of patients. Every drug has certain contraindications, warnings and side effects that prevent it from being used on 100% of patients. A more realistic close would be to let the doctor know which patients would not be good candidates for your drug. For example, “Doctor, I just want to let you know that Zamfir should not be used on patients currently taking beta blockers or MOAs.” The doctor will appreciate your candor and fair balance.

Don’t Be Pushy

I know you are saying that it is the pushy reps that get the business. We asked doctors in a focus group what they meant by pushy. Here is the example they gave us of a pushy representative’s close. Reps were selling a diabetes drug during a doctor/rep role-play. They presented a study on how drug B was more efficacious than drug A and closed for the doctor to switch patients from drug A to drug B. When we were debriefing this scenario after the role-play all the doctors began to laugh out loud. They said we would never switch patients who have been controlled for ten years based on one clinical study. They said a less pushy close would be to ask them to “consider” drug B for patients on drug A experiencing a problem.

Summarize What We Have Discussed Before Closing

In a focus group conducted in Canada by Novartis Ophthalmics after doctor/rep role-plays doctors were asked what they noticed about the really good representatives. One thing they reported was that the really good representatives would summarize what they had discussed prior to closing. The doctors said this helped remind them of why they should use your drug. A good way to summarize is by saying, “Doctor based on the fact that Zamfir’s longer duration of action provides 24 hour allergy symptom relief alleviating the problem of breakthrough symptoms would you write for Zamfir for those patients experiencing breakthrough symptoms?”

Always Give Dosing Information

A GP or FP has hundreds of drugs to remember, yet every day we ask doctors to write prescriptions for our drugs with out ever telling them how to write the prescription. A recent study published in Pharmaceutical Representative Magazine reported that patients complain that doctors don’t give them enough information on how to take their medication. Could this be because we don’t give them the information they need to pass along to their patients? At they end of every call we should remind the doctor of the dosing information for our product. “Doctor, I just want to remind you that the dosing for Zamfir is one tablet BID.”


Let’s begin to look at our sales call from the point of view of our customer. After all, the call is about them not us. With only 80 seconds to make an impact we need to focus on what our customer needs and wants rather than what we think they want. By presenting our products as solutions to problems, using scientific information presented in the SOAP format, presenting benefits with features and closing appropriately we will be CUSTOMER focused rather than SALES focused!

Jim has spent almost twenty years in the medical device and pharmaceutical industry working for companies such as Novartis, Allergan and Johnson and Johnson. He is currently President of TAP Consulting Company where he provides training and performance consulting for the industry. Jim has two copyrights to his credit and countless hours conducting physician focus groups and doctor/rep role-plays. He can be reached at 770-596-1498 or [email protected]. For information on courses that teach the principles mentioned in this article log on to .

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Source by Jim N. Price

Pros and Cons of Vapor Steam Cleaners

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Vapor steam cleaners are top hard surface cleaners that are widely used in hotels, hospitals, and other commercial buildings. The cleaning power of these machines results from the high temperature output. Sophisticated stem cleaning equipment provides an output temperature of 386°F.

This article looks into the merits and demerits of using vapor steam cleaners. Their widespread popularity indicates that the advantages far outnumber the disadvantages. Yet, it’s worthwhile to have such an analysis. First, it’s better to deal with the advantages of these machines.

Efficient Cleaning

The first and foremost advantage of vapor steam cleaning machines is the high cleaning power. These machines eject high temperature output onto hard surfaces. The output melts or dissolves stains and dirt present on the surface. The molten or dissolved dirt is removed either manually using towels and brushes or automatically, with a steam cleaner and attached vacuum.

The whole process is fast and efficient. The output of the machine can dissolve almost any kind of dirt and impurities. The higher the output temperature, the better and faster will be the cleaning process.


Steam cleaning machines are known not just for their cleaning efficiency. These machines may also have sanitizing abilities as well. That is, vapor steam cleaners can get rid of harmful microorganisms present on the surface.

Some modern steam cleaner machines provide specialized anti microbial technology. Machines equipped with such a technology can remove many species of commonly occurring disease-causing microorganisms, including Escherichia coli and listeria. The anti microbial property of these machines is the prime reason why these are widely used in hotels, hospitals, and nursing homes.

Quick Drying

Vapor steam cleaners offer superheated water as output. The specialty of the output is that the liquid water content will be low – lower than 5%. It is often called dry steam output. Dry steam output is not just sharper in cleaning but uses less quantity of water. This means little water is used during the cleaning process, and less mess is left behind after cleaning.


The main disadvantage of industrial steam cleaners is, ironically, its high temperature output. That is, one cannot expose soft surfaces to the output of the machines. An output temperature of 386°F has to be handled seriously. Operators of steam cleaning machines must take care not to expose the output to their own body or the body of some others. It can cause serious damages to delicate fibers, wood, paint, and more.

Similarly, care must be taken to keep soft surfaces out of the flow of output of machines. Things such as paper, clothes, and plastics get damaged if exposed to the output of industrial steam cleaning machines.

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Source by Lauren Zwiebel

How To Write Top Notch Papers With Assignment Help For Students

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It is not a well known fact that most students have poor grades owing to their turning in poor assignments. Either their assignments aren’t well researched or they lack in cogency, presentation or arrangement of ideas. All these factors could bring down the grades for their assignments and this would in turn impact their GPA. However, with assignment help online for students, this will no longer be a major concern.

When students seek assignment help from professionals and tutors, they are first given a background on the topic at hand. They are encouraged to research the topic and come up with a rough outline of the assignment. Once this is done, the tutors help them arrange their ideas and then work on a draft. The draft is then scored and evaluated by the tutors and they come up with a list of things that can be modified or corrected.

For instance, if a student only needs minor tweaks, the tutor would work with him and help him make the modifications and work on his presentation skills and writing style to finally come up with a stunning paper. The student not only scores well but also learns how to approach an assignment and how to go about writing it. When a student’s draft is poor in quality, the tutor sits with him to help him understand the topic on which the assignment is based and thus enables him to proceed to work on the assignment.

When it comes to tough topics like accounting, students would indeed need expert help to perform well and in such cases they can seek assignment help accounting services from online platforms which offer tutoring help round the clock and get all their doubts clarified. Students may also opt for full-fledged sessions to learn the topic on hand thoroughly. There are umpteen numbers of options available in such platforms as per the individual requirements of students.

If students want help for programming assignments, that too is available in such platforms. For instance, if a student is not particularly confident in Java and has to submit an assignment in it, he/she could very much avail help online and work on the assignment. When a student gets java programming assignment help, the tutor/expert would help him/her whenever the student is stuck with a particular piece of code or logic. The tutor would help the student think and come up with an algorithm that gets the job done and also would teach him/her about the practices and code modifications for getting efficient subject skills.

Learning online or seeking help online thus widens the exposure level of students and helps them come up with assignments that are of good quality and are plagiarism free. Seeking help online is also easier for students as they can contact the tutors any time and get clarifications for their doubts. Thus, the online platform for education is what students are turning to for better grades and will continue to thrive in the future.

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Source by Sunil D. Kumar

How to Plan a 100th Birthday Party

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Turning 100 is a momentous occasion. Less than 2% of the US population reached their 100th birthday. Planning a birthday celebration for any centenarian takes sensitivity. Quite possibly they are frail and mobility challenged. The location of the party must take this into consideration.

Step 1. Discuss the party with the birthday celebrant. NEVER THROW A SURPRISE PARTY for someone this age. Together, work up an invitation list of friends and family members.

Step 2. Know all you can about the birthday celebrant. If she is in a wheelchair or in ill health, hold the party at their home. If she lives in a nursing home, coordinate with the administrator for this very special event. You need to know about all allergies and limitations. For instance, if she can’t hear, don’t waste money on music.

Step 3. Plan the food. There may be rules to follow if she lives in a nursing home. If you can hold the party in a private home, consider hiring a caterer. An alternative is to ask friends to bring a dish. The hostess supplies only the Birthday Cake and drinks.

Use the dining table with her best linens and china for a smaller group. Many centenarians are especially fond of their possessions and will have fond memories at dining table set with her beautiful china and silver.

Buffets will be difficult for senior citizens. If there is a large group of guests, put the food on a buffet or dining table, but have helpers serve the seated senior citizens-especially the birthday girl.

Step 4. Be sure to have a non-alcoholic punch or soft drinks as the celebrant or the elderly guests may need to avoid mixing alcohol with medicines.

Step 5. Bake her favorite Birthday Cake. Top it with letter candles spelling out H-A-P-P-Y B-I-R-T-H-D-A-Y or put three large candles for 1-0-0 on the cake. Western tradition allows for 100 small candles on the cake, but she probably cannot blow them all out, and this will make her feel bad.

Step 6. Entertainment should be appropriate for senior citizens. Children’s choir is a favorite. A violinist or pianist could provide background music as well as a set program.

Step 7. Consider hiring a photographer or videographer. Copies of these mementoes will be cherished by all members of the family.

Step 8. Decorations make any location festive. Party supplies: banners, balloons, yard signs can be bought at your favorite party store or online.

Don’t forget flowers for centerpieces and corsage or boutonniere for the gentleman.

Step 9. Dress. Work with the birthday celebrant on dress for the day. Make sure has a current hair cut or hair style. Fix makeup for ladies and choose a great looking outfit. Buy a tiara for the birthday girl. Party supply places have fun ones with the number 100 prominently displayed. A funny hat for a birthday guy sets the party mood. They want to look and feel good for this special day.

Step 10. Gifts. Happy Birthday from the Today show and Willard Scott can be obtained by sending a request with a photo to: Willard Scott Birthdays, TODAY show, NBC News, 4001 Nebraska Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016. NBC requests this information be in their hands 6 weeks prior to the recipient’s birthday. They cannot mention everyone on the air, but it doesn’t hurt to send in a request.

Get a list of the birthday celebrants’ governor, US senators, and representatives, and mayor of their town. Write them with the details of the centenarians approaching birthday and ask them to send them a letter of congratulations. Most politicians have staff who tend to such matters.

Contact the local newspaper and the church where the birthday girl or guy is a member. They will print it in the paper or church bulletin. Be sure to say that the birthday will be celebrated with a small, private gathering of family. This way, you won’t get party crashers.

A favorite gift is a digital picture frame with family photos. Gather all photos together, add music, and set it up as a continuous slide show. It is a wonderful way to remind centenarians of their extended family. If you have access to photos from their past, include them as well.

Enjoy this very special party! You will make this person very happy on her birthday.

Sample letter to Mayor requesting a congratulatory letter for the Centenarian

Dated 6 weeks in advance of birthday

Mayor John Doe

City Hall Suite 100

City, St, Zip

Dear Mr. Mayor

It is my honor to prepare a birthday party for one of your city’s newest centenarians. Mrs. Jane Brown Smith has lived in your fine city virtually her whole life. She worked with her husband in his three businesses while raising her two children. She has been active in her church, name of church, and civic organizations, Kiwanis Club, Rotary, and Boy Scouts. List any awards or recognitions that she has received.

Mrs. Smith turns 100 years old on April 17, and it would mean a lot to her to receive a letter of congratulations from you, Mr. Mayor. Please send your letter close to her birthday to:

Mrs. Jane Brown Smith

123 ABC Street

City, St, Zip

Thank you in advance for making her 100th birthday special.

Very truly yours

Mrs. Smith-Jones, daughter

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Source by Joy Ribbon

America’s Top 200 Attributes

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Technology and Industrialism

1. A phone system that works virtually all of the time

2. Electricity and running water

3. Toilets and toilet paper

4. Easy access to the Internet

5. Email

6. Instant messaging

7. Skype and video chat services for long-distance communication

8. Social networking sites

9. Cell phones and text messaging

10. Shops with free Wi-Fi

11. Digital cameras

12. Central heating and cooling

13. ATMs

14. Washing machines and dryers

15. Food blenders

16. Microwaves

17. Target and Wal-Mart

18. Coffeemakers

19. TiVo and DVR

20. Ability to pay bills online

21. Google

22. YouTube

23. Digital cameras

Capitalism (In flux)

24. The stability of currency

25. The entrepreneurial spirit

26. The stock market, yes, even now

27. Self-employment opportunities galore

28. A diverse job market

29. Mail and delivery services

30. Free interstate commerce


31. Airports that are usually well-functioning

32. The interstate highway system

33. Highway rest areas

34. Low gasoline prices (compared to Europe)

35. Public transportation

36. U.S. passports

37. Car and truck dealerships

38. Taxis

Health and Diet

39. The variety of foods available

40. Availability of locally grown produce

41. Foods from all around the world

42. Farmers’ Markets

43. Health clubs, gyms, and exercise equipment

44. The vitamin industry

45. WebMD (

46. Organic supermarkets

47. Increasing crop yields

48. Cookbooks

49. DVDs and TV channels dedicated to health, diet, and exercise

50. Availability of flu shots

51. Standards for immunizations

52. Dental and orthodontic care

53. Variety of specialized care available

54. Nursing homes and assisted living facilities

Freedom and Equality

55. The Constitution and its amendments

56. The peaceful transference of power

57. Religious freedom

58. The right to peaceful assembly

59. Freedom of expression

60. Traditional presidential pardons

61. Freedom of speech

62. Freedom of the press

63. Democracy and the right to vote

64. Accessible polls for voting

65. Diversity

66. Social mobility

Access to Information and Education

67. Elementary, middle, and high schools

68. The variety of DVDs, CDs, digital programs, and books available


70. Debates on live television

71. Public libraries

72. Business, law, and medical schools, etc.

73. Endowments and scholarship programs

74. Major daily newspapers

75. Live television news

76. Instantly up-to-date online news

77. How-to and do-it-yourself blogs and websites

78. Wikipedia

79. Dictionaries, encyclopedias, and reference books on all topics

80. The community college system

81. Online higher education programs

82. A&E, TLC, and History Channel productions

83. PTA

84. Public museums

85. Standards for literacy


86. The Red Cross

87. Telethons

88. Per capita contributions to charity organizations

89. The United Way

90. Relief organizations

91. Civic participation and volunteerism

92. Homeless shelters

93. Big brother/big sister programs

94. Goodwill, thrift stores, and consignment shops

95. Senior discounts

96. Foster homes

97. Adoption agencies

98. Meals on Wheels

99. Foundations for cancer research

100. National months of awareness for a variety of issues

101. YMCA and YWCA

102. Salvation Army

Safety and Protection

103. Emergency operating rooms

104. Clean water

105. Air that’s safe to breathe

106. Maternity wards

107. Emergency response systems

108. Ambulances and emergency rooms

109. Free clinics

110. Urgent care centers

111. The U.S. Department of Defense

112. Clean, safe streets and highways

113. Traffic lights, well-marked road signs and lanes

114. Copyright laws

115. Restaurant and food sanitation standards

116. The FDA

117. Free public restrooms

118. The watchdog aspect of the press

119. The system of juris prudence (usually)

120. Daycare centers

121. Seatbelts and airbags

122. The Armed Forces

123. The police force

124. The fire department

125. Neighborhood watch programs

126. Adopt-a-street and adopt-a-waterway programs

127. Pets on leashes (usually)

128. Trash and recycling pick-up

Traditions and Ceremonies

129. Cookouts and barbecues

130. Graduation ceremonies

131. Family farms

132. Family reunions

133. Baby and wedding showers

134. Easter egg hunts

135. Trick or treat-ing

136. Exchanging Christmas gifts

137. Memorial Day, Labor Day

138. Thanksgiving

139. 4th of July celebrations and fireworks

140. The Times Square New Year’s Eve celebration and ball drop


141. Theme parks

142. State fairs

143. Rock and roll music

144. Country music

145. Disney World, Disney Land

146. Universal Studios

147. Sea World

148. Variety in music

149. Magazines for every interest

150. Mp3 players

151. Little Leagues

152. Talk Radio

153. Award shows

154. Major League Baseball

155. National Football League

156. National Hockey League

157. Major League Soccer

158. Professional golf, tennis, and other sports

159. College sports

160. Comedians

161. Public recreation facilities

162. Hiking, walking, and biking trails

163. Zoos

164. Aviaries

165. Aquariums

166. Sport camps

167. Podcasts and webcasts

168. Venues for music and the dramatic arts

169. Cultural festivals

170. Arts festivals, music festivals

171. Ski resorts

Sites and Attractions

172. The national park system

173. The reclamation of lakes and waterways

174. Safe campgrounds

175. The beaches

176. The mountain ranges

177. Varied geography, even within states

178. Variety of sizes of towns and cities

179. The Grand Canyon

180. Mt. Rushmore

181. Nashville, Tennessee

182. Chicago

183. Hawaii

184. Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco

185. Niagra Falls, New York

Organizations and Institutions

186. The American Dental Association

187. Senior communities

188. Scouting organizations

189. Colleges and universities

190. American Association of Retired Persons

191. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

192. American Medical Association

193. American Bar Association

Historical Landmarks

194. Washington, D.C.

195. Jamestown

196. Alaska

197. New York City

198. Boston

199. College towns

200. Gettysburg

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Source by Christie Ray Harrison

Telenursing Approach – Evidence Based Challenge

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Introduction-The term “basic health services” is defined by UNICEF and WHO (1965) as a network of co-ordinated, peripheral and intermediate health units capable of performing effectively, a selected group of functions essential to the health of an area and assuring the availability of competent professional personnel to perform these functions. WHO has also proclaimed health as a fundamental right of every individual and society.

India is a developing country with a large and diverse geographical terrain, and a huge population with a great deal of ethnic and cultural variation. It has all kinds of health care providers ranging from well qualified doctors of allopathy, homeopathy, ayurveda, registered medical practitioners to untrained providers of medical aid, herbalists, and magico-religious practitioners. The importance of the involvement of practitioners belonging to different systems of medicine in the health care system has been noted by various committees and in various health related policy documents from time to time. The National Health Policy (2002) advocated expanding the pool of medical practitioners to include a cadre of licentiates of medical practice, practitioners of Indian System of Medicine and Homeopathy. It further recommended that different categories of medical manpower should be permitted medical practice after adequate training. The National Population Policy (2000) recommended the involvement of manpower from different health agencies to expand the body of effective health care providers. Shrivastva Committee (1975) recommended primary health care within the community through trained workers to keep the health in the hands of the people.

The governments of developing countries are unable to deliver free health services as the basic right of the citizen in a holistic manner.Accessibility of health agency is an important aspect of its availability; hence a vital factor affecting treatment seeking behaviour of consumers. To make provision for basic health care to all the people is a difficult task for administrators in a country like India. Thus, eliminating geographical barriers, and to help develop new strategies and services to appeal to consumers’ various needs and desires is a big challenge.In spite of a host of national health policies; the health care indices significantly lag behind those of the developed countries. The quantitative and qualitative demographic transition in the population and disease profile along with inadequate health care delivery infrastructure is a fundamental concern for the country. In India, government from time to time declared deadlines for achievement of goals in health and various related areas. At present, in addition to other time bound goals of current eleventh five year plan, some of the important goals to be achieved by 2000-2015 are to increase utilization of public health facilities, and to establish a system of surveillance, national health accounts and health statistics.

Moreover, the increased need for health care has not been matched with a commensurate increase in resource, and the imbalance is growing. In developed countries telenursing applications are available in homes, home care agencies, hospital based telemedicine centres, hospices and rehabilitation centres whereas in Indian scenario, its need for implementation is being considered vis-a-vis telemedicine. The evidence based approach can mobilize application of the knowledge generated through research to meet the consumers’ health needs to bridge the gap between what is known and what to be done. Telenursing approach can serve as a new and valuable asset to utilize telecommunications to support the practice of nursing and provision of professional nursing care to the patients, health care professionals, as well as administrators on remote residential or clinical settings. The present paper presents an evidence based challenges for telenursing approach with an attempt to assess and study the trends of utilization of public and private (formal and informal) health agencies available in different communities of the Union Territory, Chandigarh, India.

Further, implementation of a holistic national health programme would require an assessment of the available health systems. In addition there is a nation wide need to find various aspects of the utilization of health services in different populations and geographical areas which may be helpful for finding out some of the reasons why the goal of “health for all” was not achieved and the utilization of public health care services was very low. It will further aid to fulfill the time bound national health goals. Thus, the considerable promise of e-health in addressing issues of quality, efficiency, cost, and access to care should be placed at the forefront of our national effort to reform healthcare.

Need of the study-With an attempt to discover the relationship between the consumer and the health agencies; the present paper intended to investigate and address major bottlenecks that may impede effective implementation of telenursing approach. Further, the need was felt for positive return on investment by targeting the consumers’ real needs and to hunt aspects which may be helpful for finding out some of the reasons for slow or non achievement of health goals and low utilization of public health care services.

Methodology-The study was conducted through a cross sectional survey of geographical areas of the urban, the rural, the slum and the rehabilitated sector in the Union Territory of Chandigarh, India. Data about utilization of health care services, and factors affecting treatment seeking behaviour of the consumers was explored through formal and informal interviews of 600 consumers. Observational visits were made to health agencies and study areas.

Results-The study found that majority i.e. 490(81.7%) out of 600 subjects most often used the indigenous health agency at one time or the other.Amongst reasons for utilization of indigenous health agencies and majority consumers perceived cause of diseases to be supernatural powers,bad karma/bad nazar (bad fortune), kala jadu performed by evil people to affect their families, no cure was available in the Allopathic system of medicine, illnesses can be cured through pujas, jharas or animal sacrifices,tying of sacred thread given by sadhus/babas cures illnesses, and the treatment of ailments through yoga and pranayama.

Indigenous health agencies were nearest to majority i.e. 59.9% subjects which included maximum number 87.3% of the slum subjects. As the indigenous agency was the second amongst most often used health care agency; the accessibility and availability of the indigenous agencies, along with other factors, are likely explanations for their high utilization.

On the other hand, it can be seen that in spite of the indigenous health agency being the nearest health agency in the urban and the rural sector (40% and 63.3% subjects respectively) it was not the most often utilized (utilization was by 11.3% of the urban and 20% of the rural subjects). The use of indigenous agencies was significantly higher in less educated people.

It was found that who utilized indigenous health agency most (53.1% respondents) were from lowest monthly income group (Rs.1000-5000). These included 93.3% of the slum, and 100% of the rehabilitated subjects. Chi square value of 110.617 and p value <0.001 indicated a highly significant difference in the use of health agencies in different income groups. Thus, the use of indigenous agencies was significantly higher in lower income group.Majority of people from low income group availed health services from informal health agencies, which also happened to be the cheapest agencies. Thus, from above it was found that services of indigenous health agencies were actively utilized them in the slum and the rehabilitated sector.

Recommendations-Education and documentation will bring better quality of health care services through formal recognition of standardized private indigenous health agencies and health workers as opposed to the reliance on quacks/faith healers. Thus, with greater responsibility in telecare, telenursing has to struggle a long way to replace old challenges with new possibilities in weaning consumers away from untrained private indigenous health providers and faith healers hence safeguarding the interest of the consumers. This will not only save people from being misled by superstitions and unscientific practices, but would also conform to the objective of the national health goals in developing countries like India.

There is a need for collaboration and integration of services of the government health care agencies with private formal and private indigenous (informal) health care providers to achieve national health goals.The right mix of health care professionals can attend to people’s most frequent needs up to their satisfaction levels.

Therefore, the investment plans should be intended to meet towards today’s evidence based needs and challenges with steady progress toward a longer term vision.

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Source by Suman Bala Sharma

The Importance of Nursing Home Activities

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Many people think a nursing home is a nasty, soul-less place where residents either lie in bed or sit endlessly in a rocking chair, waiting out their days until the inevitable happens. The reality – at least in a good nursing home – is far from that. Many people enter a nursing facility when they have lots of life in them yet, and look forward to years of fun and companionship, with daily activities to keep both their bodies and brains active.

In fact, studies have shown that regular stimulating activities help half a decline in depression among nursing home residents, staving off dementia and keeping their spirits as well as their bodies alive. Activities are vital to keeping up residents’ mental and physical well-being, and even staff and visiting family and friends can take part – willingly – in the activities a good nursing home provides.

If you are looking to find a nursing home for a loved one who’s still capable of loving life, it’s important that you discover what types of activities are on offer – and how often they are available. In fact, nursing homes that take Medicare or Medicaid patients have to have a designated activities director to get the proper funding. But how well they carry out their job is something you will have to assess yourself…

“I think the residents I talk to who tell me there is nothing for them to do but sleep, eat and read the paper are looking for purpose to get up every morning,” writes Vicki30CNA on the website. “They do not look forward to the next day as they all run together. And our residents that are not as able get little to no stimulation besides toileting and shower. A few fold bibs every AM and see it as their ‘job’, but that job takes them a half hour. Then what, they tell me. I hate to see their last years months days so empty and without purpose. “

If you want to avoid this from happening to someone you love, read on. A wide variety of activities should be on offer at every nursing home, so make sure this is the case when considering a nursing home. Some residents may enjoy going out for lunch several times a week, shopping or visiting the local art gallery or cinema. Others will prefer on-site activities that stimulate their hearts and minds.

It might be a good idea to have a chat with the nursing home activities director to see what’s available. Here is just a handful of activities that a good nursing home should willingly provide…

Self-Starting Activities

Great as they require little preparation and can be planned by the residents themselves. They include:

Gardening. Depending on residents’ scope of mobility and interest, gardening can be as rigorous or as gentle as they want it to be. If there is a real garden that’s fantastic, if not then hanging baskets, small pots of herbs and indoor cactus or orchid collections can still keep the interest going.

Arts and crafts. Even older residents enjoy making something – especially when they feel it’s going to a good cause. Knitting blankets, making baby clothes or entering art or photographic contests can keep people busy and help them make a contribution to society at the same time.

Games. You might think bingo is the most popular nursing home game – and you’re right. But there’s more to competitive games than just bingo. How about bridge, mah-jong, canasta or chess – the sky’s the limit. One-on-one games are great for encouraging closer relationships among residents, and group games are also good for fostering a sense of community.

Musical-based activities. Don’t limit the fun to sing-alongs – you may even have professional musicians among the residents, or you may discover some hidden talents.

Volunteer-led Activities

Nail care, Bible study, hair salon day – all you need is a volunteer with a skill – and the time to make a difference in someone’s life.

School groups. It may sound cliched, but young people have a lot to learn from oldsters. This can take the form of Granny teaching little Albertine to knit, or visiting a school once a week and reading to the little ones. Many schools, in fact, encourage people from the outside – assuming they have been police-checked – to help kids who need a little bit extra with one-to-one reading or math exercises.

Local community groups. People who have a special talent often enjoy visiting nursing homes on a regular basis and sharing their skills. This can be giving residents massages or reflexology sessions, teaching them a special aspect about gardening, or giving a talk about growing orchids.

Scout groups. Often, scout troops visit nursing homes – gathering together to do something fun such as bake chocolate-chop cookies or build a birdhouse. The two groups can learn from each other and make use of each other’s skills and talents.

Local charities. People from charities often give their time to older people, whether that means preparing outings or having a Pet Therapy day when the local vet or employees from the animal shelter bring animals to visit.

Nursing Home-Led Activities

Themed events, such as birthdays or religious celebrations. Some creative residents get together with staff to plan events such as Hawaiian nights, Chinese New Year celebrations or Halloween or Thanksgiving festivities. Friends and family can be invited to join in – perhaps even residents of neighboring nursing homes as well.

Outdoor activities such as barbecues, picnics or a stroll through a park or garden center. In some cases volunteers may be called on to help residents with mobility issues.

A bit of culture. Going to the theatre, opera, museum or cinema can take some planning, but its worth it. Again, volunteer helpers and drivers may be necessary.

Alternative therapies. Everyone can benefit – as long as they’re not too invasive. Massage, yoga or Tai Chi can help residents have fun, get fit and relax.

Keeping people as happy and healthy as possible for as long as possible. both physically and mentally, should be the goal of every nursing home. Activities should be varied and interesting, suited to the different abilities, needs and interests of the residents. They should be not only fun but worthwhile, enabling residents to form new relationships, develop new skills, and keep up their fitness levels.

“We have a ‘senior prom’ in May, where the local single Marines escort our residents (wheelchairs and all) for dancing and food, writes CoachCathy on the site. “We have gowns and suits donated by the local thrift stores. Local hair parlors come and do the hair and nails. Everyone has a blast.

“And we had a Winter wonderland theme last December – we made snowmen with diaper boxes painted white – and had a snowman decorating contest. The residents had an indoor snowball fight (with cotton balls). It was so much fun!”

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Source by S Matthews

A Guide For Breastfeeding Mothers – Breast Pads

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Breast pads are a non-glamorous aspect of breastfeeding and yet so useful! Choosing the right breast pads for you is essential to feel comfortable and confident while breastfeeding. We hope you will find this guide to breast pads useful.

Breast pads are a non-glamorous aspect of breastfeeding and yet so useful! Choosing the right nursing pads for you is essential to feel comfortable and confident while breastfeeding. We hope you will find this guide useful.

When it comes to breastfeeding and lactation, every woman is different. Some nursing mums find themselves needing to change breast pads very frequently while others leak very little and can wear the same ones a bit longer. Some breastfeeding mums only leak for the first few weeks, others will feel more comfortable wearing them for several months. Once lactation is fully established, breast milk is only produced when the baby nurses and the breasts don’t leak as much.

Nursing pads should be changed as soon as they feel damp. This is essential to avoid cracked or sore nipples as well as bacterial infections.

There are two kinds of nursing pads on the market: disposable or washable breast pads.

Disposable nursing pads are mostly made of cotton or paper, sometimes with a breathable waterproof membrane to avoid leakage. Some brands feature a small sticky tape which holds the pads securely in place in the bra. The advantage of disposables is that they are easy to use and reliable. Once they are damp, they can be thrown away. The disadvantages is that they are expensive and generate a lot of waste – hardly an environmentally-friendly way to breastfeed!

Washable breast pads have improved significantly over the last few years. They are extremely soft and reliable. Although they are a little bit more expensive to purchase initially, they rapidly allow you to save money. When they are damp, pop them in the laundry and dry as usual. Washable nursing pads are made of natural material, usually cotton, hemp, bamboo or even wool. Wearing natural material is recommended for mums with cracked or sore nipples as it allows good airflow to promote healing and avoid infections. The pads should be washed a couple of times before using. They will also soften with use.

Buying good-quality nursing pads is essential for a new mum to feel confident and comfortable while breastfeeding.

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Source by Arabella Greatorex

Diet analysis part 2 Essay Dissertation Help

Step 1:
• Implement action plan and document 3 days of implementation (activity and nutrition changes)
o It is okay if you are not successful on a daily basis, please document all 3 days, even if you did not successfully maintain change.
o In addition to food, please document how you feel during the days (happy/sad/stressed/angry/broke) or if you have cravings. These notes will be helpful in your discussion.
Step 2:
• Summarize experience (answer the following questions in paragraph form)- Please pass in hard copy of summarization and application/discussion sections
o Analysis of action implemented diet and activity log
? Did your action plan work to correct diet inadequacies or activity inadequacies? – diet inadequacies
? Evaluate using the tools in mydietanalysis (use these to support the summary below).
o How successful you were in implementing changes?
o What made it difficult to make changes? -diminishing my exercises habits, make the efforts to find time and eat breakfast every day, eat more greens
o How were you able to stay on track? Did you use any tools? I used Myplate
o Are you able to continue to maintain your changes? YES I AM ABLE
o Would it be easier to maintain fewer changes or more changes? What do you think is ideal?–> EASIER TO MAINTAIN FEWER CHANGES IS IDEAL. ONE STEP AT THE TIME

• Discussion
o How can you apply this to the people trying to make changes?
o Why do you think it is difficult for people to make changes?
o What would make it easier to maintain change?
o Do you think it would be helpful to document food/activity intake?
o Thoughts on moving forward with new knowledge.



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