Does medical television drama change the public perception of crisis in the NHS? Essay Dissertation Help

Length: 10-12,000 words
(Title Page, Abstract, List of Contents, List of Illustrations and Tables, Reference List and Appendices do NOT count)

Structure of the main body of the dissertation

Please note that there is no set template. The structure of your dissertation will depend to an important extent on the nature of your project (for instance, empirical social science research, legal/policy analysis, historical study).

If you are doing empirical social science research these are some of the elements that are likely to be included in your dissertation:
1. An Introduction setting the context for the research and stating the rationale for doing it and its main aims (possibly in the form of research questions);
2. A chapter setting out the conceptual/theoretical framework and the relevant academic literature;
3. A chapter or section explaining the methodology employed, its limitations and appropriateness, including (if relevant) a discussion of any ethical issue raised by your project (see section below on research ethics);
4. One or more chapters analysing your research data (not necessarily numerical data; e.g., interview ‘data’);
5. A concluding chapter relating the main results of the research to the body of literature reviewed in the first part of the dissertation.

Other elements that must be included in the dissertation
1. Title Page: (full title, including subtitle; your full name; JMC department; date and year)
2. Abstract (100 to 250 words outlining your dissertation topic, methodology, aims and results)
3. List of Contents
4. List of Illustrations and Tables
5. Acknowledgements (optional)
6. Appendices (optional)
7. Reference List (please note that this is a reference list, not a bibliography, so include only works that you have cited or referenced in your dissertation)
Assessment and Modes of Weighting

1. Background: 30% – includes theoretical context and approach, discussion of previous relevant research, factual accuracy, and the context for your research in terms of academic and (if relevant) contemporary public debate.
2. Conduct of research: 40% – includes formulation of research questions and relating them to your background discussion, choice and explanation of methodology, technical competence and thoroughness of research, and reflection on the problems and limitations of the methods used. Also includes (if relevant) awareness of ethical issues raised by the project and discussion of how these issues were dealt with.
3. Analysis of findings: 20% – includes interpretation of data, drawing of conclusions, and relating them to the original background and context of the research.
4. Presentation: 10% – includes fluency, clarity, accuracy of writing, and evidence of a coherent and well-organised piece of work. Appropriate and clearly explained use of graphics and tables.

Here you can find what I’ve got so far and research questions as well as a transcript of an interview for the research (which I would like to have included in the appendices). You can find some broad ideas and comments there which I would like to further develop.




The chief aim of this paper is to present true perceptions of the current state of affairs with the National Health Service (NHS) through insider perspectives, expose presently held myths by medical television drama. It is necessary and important that the current spate of the crisis which has overtaken should not be undermined, or manifested in an inaccurate light, since this could have far reaching consequences, especially among public who rely heavily on public health services and could be mistakenly influenced by facts and dramatics presented by the medical dramas, especially in short term.

Topics related to medicine have always fascinated mankind, both at the level of professional medical knowledge, as well as everyday human experiences of common man. Leonardo da Vinci, who combined passion for painting with fascination for human anatomy, with admirable consequence he studied and examined the construction of the human body. He carefully and methodically recorded his findings on the drawings and drawings. One of his most contemporary famous work is the “Vitruvian Man”, the work on the proportions of the human body. Leonardo carried out illegal autopsies, he studied and examined human muscles, tendons, bones and cardiovascular system. His fascinations of the human body were continued later by Rembrandt van Rijn. The most familiar artwork of Dutch master is “The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp”. Rembrandt presented the scene of conducting an autopsy, making this medical practice known only to the narrow circle of specialists, in a socially valuable and precious socio-medical treatment. The social aspect of this work draws attention to the fact that the autopsy begins with an analysis of the hand, not the abdomen. The artist probably was trying to prevent the shock effects, focusing viewers’ attention on the social function of performing the autopsy, not its medical aspect.

Analyzing the issues of the medicalization of modern television series, we cannot ignore the socio-historical significance of Rembrandt works related to this topic. Modern medical series not only continue the paintings’ features from many centuries in the past, but significantly expand the presented theme. In the flow of television content, series are a separate category. It is a genre that connect viewers with diverse views, lifestyles, interests, cultures, experiences or genders. Medical series are being watched both by women and men, old and young representatives of various professions. This is perhaps the only one of the few forms of television productions, which does not divide the audience, but combines them. The popularity of the medical issues is a phenomenon. The scale of interest in medical TV series is still huge, despite the fact that there are more recent series coming every year, that can be classified into this category.

Television series are being seen as an attractive product of widely understood mass culture. With an extremely range of themes, it allows even the most fastidious viewer to find something in the world of series something for everyone. These types of productions have existed on the glass screen for several decades and found their permanent place in the history of television. They survive their ups and downs, like the majority of television programs, which does not change the fact that the audience still love them and is addicted to them. Due to the various themes, series can be divided into many different species. Starting from the production of science fiction and ending with Brazilian soap operas. Due to the the fact that, the television series market is very tight glutted and manufacturers have to fight to win the viewer, they have been creating more and more new forms, which probably no one could count them all. It is worth mentioning that the narrative including doctors, hospitals and patients had created its own genre.

In the 1970s Marshall McLuhan (2013) attributed great importance to this kind of entertainment because of the “desire to experience feeding hunger [health] and […] obsessed with the bodily welfare”.


This chapter will seek to identify, analyse and critique to which extent medical television drama distort, modify the realities of, and of all, offer a much unrealistic portrayal of public perceptions within the National Health Services (NHS) in the UK. The overview of British and American medical television drama, historical as well as contemporary series, will be provided in order to get a better understanding of the current situation. It will also identify the main problems that NHS is facing today and the image of this institution on the small screen, using the example of 24 hours in A&E. The contrast between the rise of popularity of medical television and its way of showing health services will be compared to its current situation after passing the Health and Social Care Act 2012.

Since its inception in 1950s, medical television series enjoyed unprecedented popularity (Creeber, Miller and Tulloch, 2008). The history of medical drama dates back to only a couple of years after the foundation of the NHS, which was founded in 1948 by health secretary Aneurin Bevan (, n.d.). Shows like Medic (US, 1954-5) and Emergency – Ward 10 (UK, 1957-67) were the precedents to more modern shows like City Hospital (1998-2007); 999: What’s your emergency (2012- ), or 24 Hours in A&E (2011 – ). 2016 was a year for the celebrations of 30th anniversary of British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) longest running medical drama, Casualty (1986- ). By the 1960s, the number of medical dramas has grown to a larger number and the genre started developing new formats.

On 27th September 1961, Dr. Kildare (NBC, 1961-6) appeared on television screens in United States. The series was created on the canvas of radio plays and on the basis of a series of films directed by Harold S. Bucquet. It was a story of a young doctor (played by Richard Chamberlain), who gets to work in a large urban hospital, where he teaches the craft of medicine and in accordance with the Hippocratic oath, provides sick people with help, struggling at the same time with their personal problems. Pioneering center, which started the trend of the medical television series was ABC (American Broadcasting Company). ABC also created the series General Hospital, which was then entered into the Guinness Book of Records as one of the longest television series (Guinness World Records, 2009). Until now there has been filmed over 13500 episodes of this soap opera. Throughout the years, medical television series were changing its form while retaining the main principles of its own genre (Jacobs, 2003). Often they took on the form of a soap opera, as well as other model with a different, more unprecedented structure. The best example was the series “M*A*S*H” emitted in the years 1972-1983, which focused on the medicine with a grain of salt (Creeber, Miller and Tulloch, 2008). Over the time, it began to evolve into a comedy showing the reflection on the fate of the fighting soldiers and the legitimacy of the war. This was the first of this type of production that moved the medical series from the closed hospital rooms to the field of medical points. The plot of “M*A*S*H” is set in the 50s of the 20th century during the Korean War. With a number of 251 episodes, it is recognized today as one of the best short films in the medical world (IGN, 2017). The change in episodic convention was brought by CBS production “Dr. Quinn” (Jacobs, 2003). And this time, the plot does not take place among the hospital walls, it is kept in a western feel. The action takes place after the Civil War. Young Doctor Michael Quinn (Jane Seymour) opens a private practice in Colorado Springs in the Wild West. Yet inexperienced doctor is struggling not only with medical problems, but also with mores and cultural differences. “Dr. Quinn’s” producers, for the first time in history of the television series, addressed issues of racism, equality and tolerance. That was another change in comparison with its predecessors in the medical drama genre.

Medical television series as a genre became considerably final with the appearance of “ER” (Creeber, Miller and Tulloch, 2008). This could be probably named one of the most recognizable production of the last twenty years. Michael Crichton, with his medical education, created a script in 1974, based on his own experience of working in the emergency room. Crichton has been awarded for his script with a Writers’ Guild of America. The series tell the story of the hospital doctors of Country General Hospital in Chicago, who daily face difficult choices, fighting not only with death but also with their weaknesses. Swift action mixed with interwoven with drama threads, meant that the audience could not leave the glass screen and impatiently waited for the next episode. It is also worth mentioning that the role of Dr. Ross opened the way to a great career for George Clooney. The last season of “ER” was released in 2009. In total, the show had 334 episodes. The drama sanctioned to some extent the further development of this genre in the television and began the era of its post-modern form, medical series, beating popularity records worldwide.

Need for a new format within medical drama genre arose, which was seeking more authenticity in showing the reality of the health services in the UK. Mentioned earlier 24 Hours in A&E, located firstly at King’s College Hospital and then moved to St. George’s Hospital in later years, is being filmed by Channel 4 and The Garden Productions since 2011. This format uses remotely controlled cameras, which allows the producers to film 24 hours a day. So called “fixed rig” does not interfere with happenings at the hospital and it goes unannounced on the screen (Littleboy, 2013). Each season is being filmed for 28 days using over 70 TV cameras placed around one of the busiest corridors – hospital emergency ward in the UK. The producers invite viewers to witness another drama interwoven each day with death. Each episode follow new cases, in which we meet different patients and accompany them for 24 hours. They look at the hard and nervous work of medical staff who are dedicated to providing help, from life-threatening injuries to uncomfortable illnesses and ailments. This television series is a fascinating, often amusing, approach to work on the NHS public health front (Mangan, 2014).

Narratives and stories used in medical shows vary and are contrasting from the reality in the hospitals. Current reports show that the waiting times in the Accident & Emergency departments are the worst for a decade (Donnelly, 2015).




??? broad comments below
Why people enjoy medical television series so much? Human nature is constructed in a rather strange and incomprehensible way. Images full of, to a lesser or greater extent, brutality provoke different and in some way extreme feelings. At the same time, they absorb us and make us dislike them. Medical television series allow us to see the human body in various situations. They show what you do not have a chance to see in everyday life. On the other hand, sometimes we want to close our eyes and wait for the end of particular scenes in which the excess of blood and human entrails are shown. It gives viewers the opportunity to be active witnesses of dramatic battles, in which life is at stake.

Television is the most powerful medium. Characters and ideas presented in TV series and documentaries deeply affect the beliefs of spectator, their lifestyle, behavior and needs.

Source of the phenomenon of the popularity of medical series is primarily the fact that they affect issues and problems to which it is difficult to remain indifferent. Health issues and sometimes its loss, are connected with the emotions, experiences and relationships are an important part of everyone’s life. Relationships and dependence within the strongly hierarchical structure of the medical staff, as well as emotions and tensions on the line doctor or nurse – patient – relatives of the patient, and dramatic events in the background, this is an excellent canvas for more than one television scenario.

In medical productions doctors, nurses and paramedics are the most important aspect of medical truth, credibility, probability and thus it helps with further education of spectators and the possibility of preventing actions. Medical series focus on what is most important for the viewers, which is human health. The human body, its secrets, weaknesses and finally, illnesses and even death, these are subjects close to each other. TV audience researches show that series fans like to identify with their heroes, or at least they want to feel that what is happening on the screen is not unrelatable to them and they could be a part of the story. For this reason, medical series so strongly engage viewers, also because caring for their own health is an everyday struggle. Viewers also wish to detach from monotony and routine, they wish for strong emotions and stimuli, and medical series provide a large dose of both.

What fascinates us in the medical series? Is this category of television series new? Have people been fascinated by the mysteries of their own corporeality, health, diseases and the interior of their own body? What is the social function of the contemporary medical television series? Is the popularity of this type of television production characteristic to modern time, concentrated on promoting vitality and healthy lifestyle? Or rather, due to the improved understanding and dissemination of knowledge about human physiology and the medicalization of all the areas of the human existence?

The distance between doctor and patient is reduced. There is room for honest, clear conversation. We do not see doctors working from dawn to dusk on consecutive duty hours, allowing themselves to ironic and cynical comments, but completely cast to the illness, allowing their time to each patient. The smooth and polished image, by contrast with real life makes it nice to watch and dream about such treatment. Sometimes it creates a desire for a change.
Medical series and their social function goes beyond issues related to the way of living of a modern man. It can be argued that the medical television series are a great tool to diagnose and often treat dysfunctions of the whole society. Medical series are the place to deal with social fears, exploiting social issues and the solutions applied to the medical education, presenting a socially sanctioned hierarchy existing in a given society, presenting the modern technology and pharmacology. It is also the area of health education related to the health prevention and the impact of the social and medical advertising. It is also a picture of a mythologized social reality, often distorted, created on the principals of a fairy tale, to cheer the hearts rather than the picture of genuine social rules. Medical series are not neutral nor socially, nor culturally, nor politically or economically. They are an extremely important tool for social impact in a number of very different areas. They satisfy the eternal human need related to learning about their own bodies, overcoming weaknesses and diseases, and making attempts to overcome the processes of aging and transience.

In an era of advanced technology, the access to the narrow and medical expertise is spreading. Everyday life is being medicalized. The Internet access is changing the doctors’ situation, because they deal now with more knowledgeable and aware of their disease patients. Medical profession is still highly respected in the society, but their knowledge ceases to be secret and hidden from ordinary people. Process to control their own health is trafficked heavily on enlightened citizens who are aware of principles of health prevention, they are also obliged to carry out tests in regular intervals. This has implications for the treatment process and cooperation on the line doctor – patient. Doctors are obliged to a more detailed exchange of information, feelings and analysis of clinical symptoms. The doctor and patient must establish cooperation and mutually bestow trust to proceed with successful treatment. These crucial changes in the doctor – patient relationship and the analysis of the role of these two, but also the influence of disseminating the knowledge – are possibly available thanks to the popularity of medical television genre.

Medical series can be a good manual to teach doctors how difficult the transmission of information is between patient and his family. It presents an alternative to the

Creeber, G. (2008). The Television Genre Book. 1st ed. London: British Film Institute, pp.23-26.
Donnelly, L. (2015). A&E crisis: Hospitals again fail to meet waiting time target. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 Apr. 2017].
Guinness World Records. (2009). Longest-running TV medical drama. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 Apr. 2017].
IGN. (2017). Top 100 TV Shows of All Time – [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 Apr. 2017].
Jacobs, J. (2003). Body trauma TV. 1st ed. London: British film Institute.
Littleboy, H. (2013). Rigged: Ethics, authenticity and documentary’s new Big Brother. Journal of Media Practice, 14(2), pp.129-146.
Mangan, L. (2014). 24 Hours in A&E review – a measured, moving series that doesn’t mess with the formula. [online] The Guardian. Available at: [Accessed 1 Apr. 2017].
1. Tell me a bit about yourself and your medical background

2. Have you ever watched any medical TV series? Specify.

3. Have you ever watched 24 hours in A&E?

4. What in your opinion is the purpose of this/such documentaries?

5. Is the image of the emergency ward true to reality/transparent? If not, what are the differences?

6. In what way does being filmed affect doctor’s performance?

7. In what way do medical dramas affect the public perception of the medical staff?

8. In what way do medical dramas affect the public perception of the NHS as a whole?

9. In your view, why are such documentaries so popular among people? Why do they watch it?

10. To what extent are these programmes a PR tool for the NHS as opposed to educational purposes?

1. Tell me a bit about yourself and your medical background
I’m Jack. I’m 22 and I work as a Paramedic in SW London. I actually trained at St George’s, University of London, which is attached to St George’s Hospital, so was in and out of the emergency department when the filming for 24 hours in A&E was taking place. However, I’m yet to make my television debut.
2. Have you ever watched any medical TV series? Specify.
As a child, I grew up watching Casualty, the BBC drama based around the fantasy emergency department of ‘Holby City’. From this, I developed an extremely idealist view of the Emergency Services and emergency medicine as a whole. The reality is a lot different from how it appears on Casualty. Not only is a ‘flat line’ (asystole) a non-shockable rhythm during a resuscitation, but there are a wealth of other differences. The most notable being the sort of patients and calls we attend. Casualty’s producers always stage some sort of major incident or horrible tragedy, whereas the majority of calls we attend are not life-threatening and many could have been dealt with by other NHS services. Or, they would be, if health and social care services, GP services and elderly care services were properly funded in the UK.
As well as Casualty, ‘Extreme A&E’ is one of my favourite medical programmes. It’s a four-part series presented by Dr Kevin Fong, of UCH and KSS Air Ambulance. This saga explores emergency departments from across the globe and trauma care herein.
Ambulance is another BBC programme that follow the London Ambulance Service in late 2016. Another good one to watch.
3. Have you ever watched 24 hours in A&E?
Of course, I’m always trying to spot myself.
4. What in your opinion is the purpose of this/such documentaries?
I believe that the ultimate goal of the producers of 24 hours in A&E is to attract viewers – that’s what they get paid to do. They do this in a multitude of ways. Firstly, they often clutch onto the emotional/human aspects of people’s adventures in A&E. Don’t get me wrong, many people do suffer horrendous injury and loss during the series, but often a little bit of clever editing makes situations on TV appear a lot different than they area in real-life inside the department.
This said, I believe the makers of 24hrs do an excellent job at presenting the staff and various experts in an extremely good light. We are lucky to have such amazing emergency clinicians watching our backs 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. All this, free at the point of use.
Ultimately, I think the purpose of this documentary is entertainment. I’d like to see it take a more political role, given the current state of emergency the NHS is in.
5. Is the image of the emergency ward true to reality/transparent? If not, what are the differences?
When squeezing 24hrs of footage into an hour of programme, it’s obviously going to appear a little more manic than in reality. However, the camera angles and microphone placement really allow you to see the department from the eyes and ears of the staff and patients.
What’s different is the reflection done on screen by the staff that are interviewed. In reality, we don’t have time to reflect and think about some quite sad scenarios. We often just pick ourselves and get on with it, there’s always somebody else that needs help in some way.
6. In what way does being filmed affect doctor’s performance?
It makes them a lot less jokey when they’re on camera. A lot of the dark humour that is rife within emergency care is lost in the filming. I’m sure the presence of cameras does make them knuckle down and think twice about what they’re doing. Nobody wants to mess up in front of millions of viewers. Then again, they can just edit it out.
7. In what way do medical dramas affect the public perception of the medical staff?
People think we can magic them better when they see the amazing stuff they do on the TV. But often, this isn’t the case. Which makes expectations higher and disappointment more likely.
8. In what way do medical dramas affect the public perception of the NHS as a whole?
‘Ambulance’ really highlighted how stretched the ambulance services are. In the weeks following the airing of the documentary, I had many people tell me that they felt bad for calling an ambulance and that they knew that somebody would be more worthy of it. This annoyed me. The problem that the NHS is facing right now is one of privatisation by the backdoor, and hence deregulation, chronic underfunding and the introduction of ‘choice’ into healthcare. Ambulance did address funding as an issue, but did not explore the larger, more political problems that the NHS is facing under the current conservative government, and previous governments from both sides of the political argument.
I’m yet to see a documentary mention the ‘Health and Social Care Act 2012’. This Act devolved managerial and financial power to approx 200 clinical commissioning groups (CCGs). The CCG model also gave every NHS service, for examples hip replacements, a cost. To drive ‘efficiency’ in these specific areas, CCGs would accept bids from providers (NHS and private alike) that could provide vital NHS services, such as hip replacements, but also in areas such as cancer care and care of the elderly and vulnerable. What we’ve seen since is the rapid privatisation of areas where profit can be made (hip replacements), thus leaving care for chronic diseases such as diabetes, areas that cost a lot to provide, to the already struggling NHS services. At the end of the day, private providers have profit as their number one interest, not patients. If providing a ground-breaking new cancer drug will mean destroying a provider’s profit, they simply will not provide it. Profit over people. I’d like to see this highlighted a little more in medical documentaries as it’s an issue that costs many people their lives annually.
9. In your view, why are such documentaries so popular among people? Why do they watch it?
Wow factor, I guess. Nobody gets to see what goes on behind the scenes in large, specialist hospitals, and nobody really wants to when it’s them being cared for.
10. To what extent are these programmes a PR tool for the NHS as opposed to educational purposes?
I don’t think they’re PR for the NHS at all. At the end of the day, it’s channel 4 that makes money from 24hrs in A&E, not the departments involved (I think). But, most of these documentaries paint an amazing picture of the NHS. Let’s face it, the NHS is amazing. But they don’t really educate people on what they can be doing to help it survive.

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Topic: survey of detecting spammers Essay Dissertation Help


Social networking websites are getting popular in recent years. They play a more and more significant role in people’s daily lives nowadays.  By using these social networking services, it is convenient for people to communicate with their friends easily, publish posts about their life freely, and follow hot topics immediately.  Among these sites, Twitter has had the fastest growth against other social network sites with more than 284 million active users record their daily life. Twitter aims to allow individuals have relation together and share ideas through short messages called tweets.


The nature of such social network enables its users to express their views and opinions freely without any fear of disclosing their identity which leads to undesirable consequences.  Social networks have the characteristics of diversification, popularization, high real-time and interactivity. However, it also provides a large quantity of opportunities for spammers as more people are involved than ever. Such websites become a platform for spammers to distribute spam messages which leads to an unpleasant or even deteriorating social network environment. Unfortunately, Twitter has become a new attacked platform for social spammers to achieve their malicious goals such as sending spam [3], spreading malware [4], and performing other illicit activities [5,6]. The studies show that more than six percent of messages in twitter are spam. [2]. Thus, many users suffer from overwhelming disturbance from these messages, and some are even forced to leave these networks.  These malicious spamming activities have seriously threatened normal users’ personal privacy and information security. Moreover, these malicious messages lead to serious costs of network resources, interfere with the normal data mining and analysis, and increase the operational burden of social network. Besides, there are also a number of spammers making profits through marketing promotion behaviors including malicious likes, comments, votes and replies, which severely harm the credibility evaluation system of the social network and user’s trust relationship.  Therefore, it is important to detect social spammers to protect users’ privacy, information security and quality of social networking.





Problem statement

With the advent of social networks sites, spammers started flooding using new techniques to make the social networking sites such as Twitter as part of the spamming activities.  Even though these sites have an option to report spam or abuse activities, the spammers frequently change their address or account to hide their identities.


A major goal of this research is to detect spammers accounts that are involved in the spamming activities in Twitter. The researcher aims to design and implement a system to detect the spammers in Twitter. This will provide valuable insights to the area of spam detection and defense in various social networks.   A number of researches has been carried out to analyze the characteristics and behavior of spammers in social networks. However, spammers adapt new strategies to bypass the known detecting systems. Hence, new features and characteristics for spammers need to be explored in order to effectively indicate spam accounts. This research will investigates social spammer content and behavior issues, and proposes an effective machine learning model for spammer detection. The major novelty of the paper is to study a set of most important features related to message content and user behavior and apply them on a number of widely used classification algorithms for spammer detection.  All of which are used for training with a real Twitter labeled dataset. The experiment and a comparison work will be done in order to show that the proposed solution enables to provide higher accuracy.



Purifying the network environment and providing better experience for users have become pressing tasks for social networks operators. However, existing studies on spam detection mostly use only textual features or some word characteristics that still cannot provide appropriate and satisfactory spam detection method. There are still many long surviving spam accounts. It is obviously that only taking account of text content without considering new features of spammers is not enough for effectively detecting spammers. Furthermore, there are many new techniques used to cover spamming behavior used by spammers and most of studies in the area didn’t consider these techniques. Spammers usually adapt their strategies to bypass the known detecting systems. The first generation of spammers on Twitter was generally naive and had obvious characteristics that helped separate it from the rest of the population, spammers nowadays recur to cheap automated techniques to gain trust and credibility and go unnoticed in the larger crowd.


Consequently, the performances of this kind of detecting methods still need to be improved further. According to literature, there is a high demand to develop a highly accurate detection system that outperforms previous models.




  1. Proposed Work


In this work, we will study the contemporary population of spammers on Twitter.  An overview of the complete process of spam detection is described below.



4.1 Data Collection

The preliminary step for the detection of spammers is data collection and necessary preprocessing to convert it into a form, which can be used by the learning algorithms. Since there is an off-the-shelf dataset for social spammer and spam message detection study, the researcher will use one of the known labeled dataset in the field detecting English tweets.


4.2 Feature Identification

Since, spammers behave differently from non-spammers, therefore we can identify some features or characteristics in which both these categories differ. According to literature, there are various features used to detect spam accounts including number of followers, followees and number of URLs. The researcher will propose new features that are most suitable to the detection of the current Twitter’s spammers population to help in  developing a highly accurate detection system that outperforms previous models.


4.3 Preprocessing Step


In the preprocessing steps, we extracted feature vector for each user and each message. Taking in to account the new detection features that adapt to the current evading techniques. After that we analyze the difference between spammers and non-spammers from both content and behavior point of view according to dataset collected and we use these features to train a Machine Learning-based system that has the goal of detecting spammers.


4.4  Learning Algorithms


There are various different classification algorithms, which can be used to classify an account as “Spammer” or “Non-Spammer”. In our work, we will use three types of algorithms (not defined yet) modelled by WEKA software which is a very powerful, open source tool and widely used in the area.  For the corroboration of result’s accuracy, a comparison of outputs obtained from each algorithm will be done.





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WORKFORCE PLANNING Woolworths limited. Factors that affect the supply of labor Essay Dissertation Help


Woolworths limited.

Factors that affect the supply of labor

Woolworths conducts its work in a way that satisfies the needs of the Australia customers. The company builds close link with other departments to give out best customer experience. Supply of labor offers a significant relationship between company and customers in delivery network. They give out what company wants in production of its products. Any problem causes by these, will influence marketing. Managers in the market should look at it closely together with the costs. There are factors that affect Woolworths Limited company labor supply of Woolworths limited company, these factors create barrier between the company and the customers satisfactions. Working overtime opportunities in Woolworths which tends to increase payment and productivity. These can also affect the customers in accessing certain commodities past the time set. The stores are closed past the time, avoiding shopping. Most shopping occurs on Monday to Friday at limited time from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. working hours. Time for availing products to the customers faces challenges due to poor climate, topography of land and distance coverage. Restriction of labor supply entry, achieved through setting some requirements in order to get qualified people in the organization. Payment is done according to some level. Professions are paid highly than other people. Insufficient taxations greatly affect the labor in terms of offering employment.

Language barrier, lack of skills is affecting the industry to participate in work. Only few individuals have the literacy skills that assist them in day to day life and work. Training is determined by how fast someone is able to learn the language. People with less skill are not likely to get the job. When the skills are used well it builds workforce industry relationship to fulfill their needs.

Growing technology is changing the business model of the company. Different ways of doing things comes in. Mining sector is greatly influenced, with the machines developments from the Australian research in features. It takes time before the workers adjust to new technology.

Work pattern is changing. The company takes experts in different sector especially those who have advanced their learning. This is due to the competition as million people can be able to perform work.  Work-life balance is of greater importance, aged people avoid retirements, while young people try so much to get into work and those with higher education are the once who get the jobs. Currently there is less than 55 percent of post-school qualification and the holding is expected to be 70.

The company has many migrants who play an important role in the development of our company. We are trying much as we can to give out priorities to our people by up-skilling to increase labor force. So far we don’t reach our goal of 70 per cent.

Gender affects the company. It`s determined by the type of work available. Men are very many as compared to women. Most works in the company needs a lot of energy e.g. mining. Female fits well in light works such as health care and social assistance and they comprise of almost 70 per cent. Type of work is determined by gender. Also, women face disadvantages returning to work after getting children and when someone gets ill. But currently measures have been put where people benefit if such happens takes place.


Undersupply of labor

Some of sectors in the industry lacks` qualified workers. Australians should be trained in order to get the skills needed in areas of shortage. Many of them do not have post-school qualification. Education is so important, it determines the employment outcome. The industry is looking for the unskilled people in order to enter in the workforce. Also, re-training existing workers is enhanced to fulfill the shortage.

Analysis has been conducted in the company. In the past years, we have employed workers of different educational background. School leavers offer a low participation while high qualified people and professions offer highest rate of participation. In order to get qualified people the company through the government had to find migrants to provide labor.

Factors affecting the demand for labor

The world of today is very competitive due to the innovations going on. Our industry is trying its best to reach our maximum productive potential. Creativity and innovation creates a relationship with productivity, they create impact to the other. By being creative, our workers have gotten skills that help in developing the workforce. Improvements have been realized in recent days as compared to the past which was at risk. Prosperity of the company is being seen in different area i.e. prices, exports.

Online retailing by customers through technology advancement has caused challenges to the industry. It`s done through different sites using smart devices. Many customers shop online through internet and use this to compare the prices and use online retailers that avail products to them.

Educated people have created a big difference in the introduction of new technology. They have come up with new ways and ideas. Identification and implementing new ideas has lead to increased industry productivity and human capital. Unskilled people make the business stagnant. They act as a barrier in developments by giving no idea to industry.

Government initiative that affects the demand and supply of labor

Australian government offers employment to our industry. Our company is affected by placement of fixed minimum wage by the government initiatives, consideration of employment in the economy. Low minimum wages remove unskilled workers from employment. It takes time before relocation. This is not the only way that can lead to unemployment. Others include: the change of technology and when a person chooses to move in jobs. In some case, the workers are informed on the next step. If the worker fails to get job, details about the wage adjustment is brought into consideration.

Government employing people with disabilities to industries is of great concern. Statistics of the company shows that the policy is failing in employing people with disabilities. Targets are set in order to avoid barrier that leads to long term employment not achieved, should set aside funds that be benefited with people of disability who can lose their job due to disabilities.

Our company has few people with disability. With the proposed government changes will directly influence the company. Their opinion will hinder the achievement of goals set by us. These people do not fit with the competing world. State shoulder look for alternative way of offering them employment. Taking them to school to school, training them in different department is of benefit such as tailoring. Special people should be trained to take care of them.


Staff diversity

Our organization has staff equipped with a lot of experience. They cover a larger dimension both of primary and secondary dimensions. Primary dimensions covers people of different age, gender and religion while secondary are communication styles and origin. Diversity helps in increasing productivity and competitiveness. This adds value to the customer and taken as an important goal. Our industry have established programs leads to diversity and included in workplaces.

Diversity can be empowered by leadership. In the industry department there are some of the leaders who are placed to go around and teach people how diversity is important to everyone. The team gains advisory from either of the employee that helps them achieve diversity goals. People who have been awarded by the industry share their experience throughout to show the significance of it.

Employee involvement in diversity directly helps in achieving goals. Meetings can be called where everyone participate openly to access the status of diversity. It increases the workspace for employees in maintaining workforce.

Our organization supports teamwork. Which focuses in performing tasks, their participation encourages, and important in diversity of issues one can carry out self developments through these groups.

Organizational strategy and workforce alignment

Our organization comprises of many people, it comprise workers of different ages. Most of the workforce contains young individual. Age differ in different areas, older people are in management sector (Steingold, 2015). Findings found that they have stayed in the organization so long and have acquired extra experience that helps in development. The younger workers mostly are in the sales unit. They are still energetic with no or little experience. This helps them to interact with outside people in order to get knowledge and experience. Recognition of the organization came as a result of giving young people jobs and building their skills.

Gender balance has been taken into consideration depending on the area of work. Forty-seven per cent of total workers are women. Health, food and accommodation sector comprises of maximum number of women about eighty-two per cent. Mining, electrical and engineering sector comprises of mainly men about eighty-nine percent. Casual employment is around 30 per cent and 42 percent part-time.

Part-time and casual working comes as a result, when someone is studying, taking care of children and retirement. These help them to generate income that helps in the progress of their family and education.

Workers, who have insecure work as a result of not having needed qualifications, can still secure the job through training opportunities that is done by the industry.

Having a high number of casual compared to permanent workers, this creates negative impacts in terms of skills and developing workforce. Within these people, there are some who consider job as a way of earning income for supporting education. Some with family want to get permanent jobs once they are done with caring. As others want to try hard in securing their jobs, there is chance for those who want to continue with their career and emphasis on strategies.



Staff turnover

In the company we have experience high rate of turnover. Turn over occurs in a number of ways such as retirement, family issues, joining a new job, tired of work and also starting their own business. Not all turnover is comes as a result of influence from the industry. If incase there is high turnover in the company, the problem should be identified. Coming late to work and absenteeism shows signs of turnover. Our industry experiences high turnover in the mining sector. Overall performance of mining is affect.

In recent research carried out, the sector has new workers. Senior miners have resigned from the job. Gold and coal shows high number of turn out. Fewer individuals are the ones retaining the workforce. Also, health of workers is affected.  Workers in this sector should be highly motivated and equipped with skills. This makes an attracting environment for the success of business.

Different strategies are put into consideration so as the employees remain in the industry. We have identified things that will make the employees to stay such as pay, good working condition.

Strategies to find skilled labor from external sources

Our organization faces challenges in terms of getting qualified people to meet our standards. Strategies are put by the industry to attract workers from other organizations. The strategies set include:

  1. Advertising- we attract people by showing how best our company is to work for.
  2. Training existing staff- low-skilled people are trained to reach the standards needed by us.
  3. Recruiting- recruitment process is done in time and training to make the person ready for job
  4. Internship- sourcing of the best candidate in the workplace especially from student sent to different fields.

Contingency option to deal with extreme situations

Industry has put into place some measure that ensure the customers get there needs even though the company faces challenges. A team headed by executive director and his assistance deals with such situations. In situation such as losing many workers in a short period in form of retirement, the company has set rules in such issues. Recruitment of employees is done before the period reaches. Some of the new workers who are in our training centers are brought to work. The rate or retirement is set to match with the recruitment. The employees are set in such a way is there is any shortage of workforce, there quickly adjust to the changes and fill the gap.

Workers health matters a lot in participation in work force. When person health changes due to being sick, it creates a gap in the company. Measures of maintaining good hygiene is put in place in all areas of the industry (Vaiman, & Vance, 2010). There are workers who deal with cleaning all over the industry sectors .Hospital is situated in the industry to offer medical attention to the workers. In case of accidents and injuries, the health sector responds faster. The organization in health sector has a specific number where the workforce reports a problem of being sick. Awareness is created to the industry management through the sector, and adjustments done where needed.

People in different places including the remote areas need jobs. The industry has set strategies that create awareness to people all over. Best way of getting workers from remote areas is through advertisement and having staffs that carry out field work to remote areas.

Organizational strategies and changes needed for modification of workforce

Improvements are needed to meet the future goals. A qualified workforce is supposed to be increased and employing people with great skills. As the economy changes, workers should equip themselves with more than two professions in order to fit in any industry and sectors. Nobody knows what future holds, the labor market will need extra skills in workforce. This means that our industry need to double effort in workforce.

With changes in industries, influences the employees too. Future training of workers is supposed to be different from those employed currently. Innovation and technology taking place needs qualified workers. Our company needs more professions and specialized occupation to balance the supply and demand qualifications to reduce the gap.

Organization workforce needs

Achieving workforce needs, helps in supporting organizational objectives presently and in future. It focuses on people with high skills, the required number of workers, in the best working condition to meet the demand of the business.

The decision is to bring changes. Organization focuses in bringing up new workers, some standard must be achieved in training them; changing of the present curricula to new one; introducing of new strategies. It will take time for these to be accomplished.

Need assessing is the introduction of human resource foundation in the industry; the outcomes are used to discuss objectives and strategies with extensive services offered. This helps to provide knowledge on how one can assess the future organizational requirements.

Organization current workforce to meet the predicted demand of goods and services

Here, we see how best our workforce can deliver business outcomes. The organization has a well equipped workers with skills are knowledge to meet the demand. The industry works at 24 hours schedule, therefore production and delivery of goods and services are active at all the time needed. Absenteeism is not common, unless in serious cases such as falling sick.

Number of people who have skills delivery of goods and services can bring effect.  When the suppliers are many in the market, they distribute products in limited time to meet the demand of the consumer.

Strategies used to address oversupply of future staff members

Industry need to know the number of currently employed and needed in future. Putting into consideration the company`s strategic goals to avoid mess. Before this is done, know your future plan and the recent performance. This will help in knowing the gap between your current and desired. By looking at skills, identify lines of weakness in the business. Look at the skills level, turnover rate and retirement in the company if they meet the future expectation. Implement your plan ensuring that everyone you bring to the business has technology skills required.

Option for communication strategies

Communicating to staffs on ongoing information that they have no idea of is very important. Awareness is created to the processes that are done without their involvement. Feedbacks can be heard about the change initiative. The plans should have the following:

  • Audience who should receive the information
  • Message itself
  • Delivery method
  • Action

How the staff gets the message can be:

  • Directly involvement in meetings
  • Sending representatives
  • Putting notices
  • Electronic method like emailing, messaging via phones

Assessment 2

Question 1

According to De Bruecker, Van den Bergh, Beliën, & Demeulemeester, (2015) a plan is a forecast or approximation of how operations of a company will be conducted in the near future. Planning helps the management in several ways including; proper time management for high productivity, reduction of relevant costs that may contribute to reduction of overall profits of the company and employee turnover that can cause lose of experienced professional in the key areas of the company. The management should be considerate of this key element to encourage high performance. In relation to managing the workforce a proper implementation plan should be laid down.

Haynes, (2011) refers to diversity management as the best strategy including practices that a management has to adopt so that it improves the organizations performance and also help the company to achieve its long term and short term objectives. Best practices adopted include;

  • Employee resource group

The effective usage of the groups comprising of the various employees creates a milestone in objective achievement. The companies should plan to have various employees included in groups that are reliable and efficient. This is depicted in Lent, (2013) in his article describing various formations that help improve productivity. The resource groups are created to help and improve decision making processes and procedures a reality. This eases the procedures and basically, decisions made are based on shared ideas from various employees.

  • The management should plan for mentoring of its employees. Sponsorship should be considered in order to develop the employee at his work place. This is a strategic way of ensuring employee retention and equipping employees with the better knowledge of the job as a description of the entire requirement. Steingold, (2015) gives a clear and distinct description of the entire implementation plan. He includes all necessary requirements that are needed to make diversity management complete. Best practices are involved and implementation of diversity creates a dire requirement of a professional management that is keen on maximizing profit and owner’s wealth including minimizing associated costs (Vaiman, & Vance, (2010).




For a company to operate efficiently, it must be well staffed. This means that the business must have sufficient work force to enable it produce or carry out its operations in an effective and efficient manner. Smith, (2012) explains the need of a company having a well planned workforce. Proper performance of the company is defined the experience and knowledge that an employee has towards a given task. The firm will enhance productivity and in return generate more revenues. A clear plan about the workforce is to be put in place to ensure proper planning for labor that could be required in the coming financial year. This includes practices such as rotation of employees from one firm to another to enable. Due to the growing nature of the industry, the company needs to take precautions. These precautions are to cover it against any unfavorable outcomes that are most likely to happen. The management should plan on how to overcome such staffing needs. In this way policies and procedures are laid down to keep the track and ensure proper ways and means of staff recruitment. Recruitment as defined by Haynes, (2011) refers to the process that is applied by various organizations to enlist new persons to the business. A clear and distinct process should be outlined by the human resource manager on how new people should be recruited. The process should apply all through a given term of operation. In doing this, workforce planning for the next financial and operation will be made easier. Planning for work force means estimating the quantity of labor that will be required in the coming year and not putting aside quality of production consideration (Marston, 2010).




Training is part of employee familiarity to the job specification. After recruitment of new people into the organization a rigorous training is required and recommended to the new members. This is depicted in Froelich et al, (2014) where they described training as an essential for employee adaptation. The employee has to be given proper training in areas that require proper guidance. This is to be done by the respective manager or by the former employee of the same position. Woolworth has perceived a better position in employee training. This has included both existing and new employees. It has set aside costs that are directed to training in the near future to allow link the transition period. Such a precaution is very important in cases where companies operate with huge margins. Proper training of the work force has to be instituted to enhance productivity. Familiarity enables employees study the strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunity that may be available at a future date (Haynes, 2011). A suitable plan is put in place to cater for changes, supply and demand of the employees. This helps to overcome challenges that may arise in the process business caries on its operations.


It involves the assignment of the employees to new places of work. Woolworth being a company that is globalized, it has established roots all over the countries in the world. Employees of the company should be assigned to these various work stations mainly for the company to improve its productivity and secondly, for the employees to avoid boredom i.e. working in the same station for a long time may be a cause for this boredom. Lent, (2013) provides that a conducive environment is one which allows and meets the requirements of its employees, gives the employees room for training and development. Most organizations including Woolworths Company has practiced this culture and this gives the main reason of the company strengthening its roots and capturing a wide customer base.

Internal labour needs identified Strategies to address need Resources and/or Budget required Proposed timeframe
Scarcity of labour Recruitment 500 employees After 1 financial period
Quality Training and development of the staff Workshops and seminars After a period of three months
Satisfaction Providing necessities such as allowances and medical covers Support from employer After a period of one month

Question 2

The current number of employees of Woolworth Company is 205,000 it is estimated that the staff turnover per year is 625 employees. This is due to various factors including natural calamities, retirement and incompetency.

The approximate percentage of turnover every year is as follows;

Number staff turnover divided by total number of employees multiplied by one hundred percent.


= 0.3049%

The above results imply that out 205,000 employees only 99.7% will turn out in the next financial period. Knowing such critical information, it will be essential to the company when making critical decisions such as workforce planning.

Question 3 The chart represents the organization positions

The key positions to be utilized here are the supervisors, bottom management and middle management. These positions are the closest positions to the employees. They work together to ensure that the company objectives are achieved as outlined in the company’s constitution. Such positions are very crucial in any organization because they hold the company’s operations at hand. Then, for a company to perform well it has to ensure that there are good relations among the employees.

Question 4

The succession plan will be based on the staff turnover rate. The basic succession will be implemented through promotion and by improving the employee’s lifestyle which includes the living standard.  This will be done after a full year of financial service. It will majorly depend on the employee effort and input towards the revenue generation of the company. Making working conditions better for employees will give a taste to every individual and make them always long to work for the company i.e. make the organization the best employer choice (Marston, 2010).

To identify staff for succession one needs to check on various factors. These factors will always try to give the best and ensure the going concern of the company. Employees who have served in the company for a reasonable period of time may be the best candidates of succession. In addition employee input and dedication towards the allocated specification.

There are several ways to develop employees for succession. One is by training. The employee is trained on various issues regarding the company. This will help expose the employee to wider issues and matters of the company that were not clear at the beginning. Such exposure will make the employee understand the company better and be able to focus on the weaknesses to transform them to strengths.

The other, is to allow the employee advance in the academic qualifications to sharpen and advance his or her skills. Advanced levels of education are more of managerial. This will make the employee be in a position of understanding the business in and out.

Part B

Question 1

Workforce plan of Woolworth Company is quite clear and distinct. It involves various components such as recruiting, rotation, training and development etc. The plan to curb any shortages is put in place. This implies that a sufficient workforce is recruited to avoid any scarcity. The current pattern adopted mainly concerns the casualization, emergency and other factors that may lead to scarcity of the workforce. Rotation is a workforce plan that ensures quality and quantity. The company practices this strategy to avoid boredom of a worker working in the same work station for a long period of time. The results to boredom may be poor quality and reduced quantity (Schweyer, 2010).

Training and development of employees is a key to improved relations between the company and its workforce as depicted by Haynes, (2011). The workforce is equipped with the necessary knowledge that will help in achieving the company’s goals i.e. long term and short term goals.

Question 2

Survey conduct

The survey is conducted on the employees who are to give their own opinions on satisfaction.

The outcomes are based on good, fair, very good, and poor grounds.

Employees Supervision Promotion Job security
1 Good Good Fair
2 Fair Fair Good
3 Good Very good Good
4 Good Fair Very good
5 Fair Good Fair
Line manager 1 Good Good
Line manager2 Fair Fair
Line manager3 Fair Good
line manager4   Fair Fair
line manager5   Good good




Question 3

The main objectives of the business are to be refined and include all elements that will improve the performance of the government. The objectives based on productivity and profitability is given priority. Cost minimization and profit maximization will be directed as prioritized. Strategies should be put in place including precautionary strategies. Strategic plans and strategies should be considered. Long term and short term strategies should be implemented to help improved performance or to curb any costs that may be associated. Wealth and profit maximization is one of the basic objectives of operating a business. Globalization should be considered as part of the long term strategies that should benefit the business for as long as the business is in operation. Such strategies when adopted and implemented as required will improve performance.  The changes that are experienced by the company either internally or externally may be regulated depending on their occurrence. The internal changes are due to internal alterations of the business such as hiring and firing the employees that is done externally by the human resource management.

The change is effected due to some reasons i.e. if the company has a rotational policy, if there are some casualties and in case there are some discrepancy among the workers in terms of competencies.  Proper strategies and precautions should be put in place. Such strategy should comprise on how employees should be recruited i.e. the recruitment process.

External changes such as loss of customers and changes experienced in products and services delivered to the customers, should also be considered. Loss of customers will be due to high competition in the market and presence of substitutes. This implies that if there are other players in the market, the prices of commodities will always differ due to the need of the companies to have a wide market share and maximize on their profit. Customers will always prefer products that are pocket friendly. Therefore, Woolworth should consider adopting characteristics and features that will always attract the customers and maintain their frequencies. Quality of the products and services should be the key to win the goodwill of customers.

Sometimes products offered in the market may be outdated due to frequently changing technology. The technology is being developed in each and every business cycle. Therefore, for a company to remain a competitive nature, it must be ready to cope up and accept the changes in the market. The products and services provided should align with the current customer specifications and requirements. Such strategy will always keep the company at a competitive advantage. It will help in maximizing the profit of the company and in the long run the wealth of the shareholders.

Question 4

Trends are brought about by many factors. The changes are triggered by technological advancements that occur in the day to day operations of the business. The changes are market, product and customer driven. In order to cope with the changes the business has to take precautions to overcome this changes that may negatively affect the operations of the business. The outlook of the various products has been advanced and adjusted to suit the requirements of the target person who is usually the customer. Systems have become automated and even labor is on the track to being replaced by machines currently referred to as ‘robots’. The robots work on a command that is directed by the operator. Such trend has helped improve efficiency and effectiveness of the business operations. Products will be produced based on customer specifications. Sometimes trends such as online marketing are currently dominating the market. The market is also becoming competitive and this will create an advantage to the company i.e. the business will take advantage of the competitive environment.

Changes in climate has also influenced workforce planning. Due to non-correlation of the climate with business activities, the performance of the business has been affected giving a new impression of management operations. The major segments of the business have been affected either positively or negatively. This implies that more labor or less labor may be required to enforce operations. Woolworths Company has globalized. The major areas of its operations have been affected due to climatic changes in Australia. This has either influenced the operation positively or negatively. More workforce will be planned for incase there is a prediction of a favorable weather condition. This indicates that more labor will be required to maximize profit of Woolworth Company.

Major fire that has occurred in parts of Australia community recently has affected the business. The workforce has been influenced negatively. This is due to the losses that have been experienced in terms of customers and revenue for the company. The business branches have been affected since they ceased to operate for a given period of time and even some are wound up. Therefore, the workforce that is planned is expected to be lower than the usual number that has existed before. The fire consumed the business branches. This implies that the workforce that was required to work on these companies is reduced completely. This forces the managing of workforce to be redone effectively.

Casualization influences the management of workforce. Woolworth Company is operating in chemical related products that are very risky to human health. This requires the company to take precautions against such unfavorable condition and risky working environment for the innocent workers. However, regardless of great caution and care taken there are still casualties. Therefore, planning of the workforce will be influenced. More workers are to be employed to cover up the gap that may affect the normal functioning of the business.


De Bruecker, P., Van den Bergh, J., Beliën, J., & Demeulemeester, E. (2015). Workforce planning incorporating skills: State of the art. European Journal of Operational Research, 243(1), 1-16.

Froelich, K., McKee, G., & Rathge, R. (2011). Succession planning in nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 22(1), 3-20.

Haynes, B. P. (2011). The impact of generational differences on the workplace. Journal of Corporate Real Estate, 13(2), 98-108.

Lent, R. W. (2013). Career‐life preparedness: Revisiting career planning and adjustment in the new workplace. The Career Development Quarterly, 61(1), 2-14.

Marston, C. (2010). Motivating the” What’s in it for me?” workforce: Manage across the generational divide and increase profits. John Wiley & Sons.

Schweyer, A. (2010). Talent management systems: Best practices in technology solutions for recruitment, retention and workforce planning. John Wiley & Sons.

Smith, T. (2012). Strategic Workforce Planning: Guidance & Back-up Plans. Numerical Insights LLC.

Steingold, F. S. (2015). The employer’s legal handbook: Manage your employees & workplace effectively. Nolo.

Vaiman, V., & Vance, C. (Eds.). (2010). Smart talent management: Building knowledge assets for competitive advantage. Edward Elgar Publishing.

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Anthropology Essay Dissertation Help

Spring 2017
Assignment #4
(due 4/5 as a hard copy at the beginning of class)
Part 1: Language variation
1) Go to the Harvard Dialect Survey: and click on the tab
“Maps and Results.” There are 122 links, containing self-report data of U.S. regional
variation. Find one example each of phonetic/phonological variation, morphological
variation, lexical variation, and syntactic variation, and fill out the information in the
following chart:
# The two (or more) variants
(write in both spelling and
IPA for the
of use for
each variant
A summary of their regional
Note: in analyzing the maps, it seems most helpful to look at the “all results” map. You
don’t need to include options of “either,” “I have no word for this,” “other,” etc. Use the
names of regional dialects from the map on Slide 12 of Lecture 15 to summarize their
regional distribution, when possible.
Lexical #
& <carryout>
= 70%
= 6%
<take-out> occurs everywhere, with
the most responses in the NE. The
highest concentration of <carry-out> is
in the Great Lakes dialect.
2) In this audio clip, two multilingual Hong Kong professionals talk about their English
experiences. They are speaking a variety called “Hong Kong English.” This clip and
transcript comes from the 2012 book World Englishes: Implications for international
communication and English language teaching by Andy Kirkpatrick. Listen carefully
to the phonetic characteristics of their language variety:

Note: if it helps you to have the captions turned on, click on the CC icon on the
bottom right of the video.
a. Which of the following is the best representation of his pronunciation of the
word <biggest> in IPA (at about 60 seconds into the clip)?
A) [bigɪs]
B) [bɪgɪs]
C) [bɪgist]
D) [bɪggɪst]
b. Listen to the man’s pronunciation of the following words. Each
pronunciation makes use of a phonological process. Match his actual
pronunciations to the phonological processes on the right.
Note: some processes are used more than once. If final consonant deletion
and consonant cluster reduction are both occurring, pick (3) instead of (2).
The transcript is provided below and the five words in question are bolded.
Example: <pleasant> = sound substitution (of [l] to [r])
A) <school> 1) sound substitution
B) <switched> 2) final consonant deletion
C) <most> 3) consonant cluster reduction
D) <quite>
E) <three>
KT: Even in primary school? (yeah) You mean teaching that subject in English?
KC: I ahh learned the the subject of English ahh (wow) I think ahh all primary school kids
(ehm) did ahh most primary school kids do nowa nowadays (ehm) so ahh and then I was
switched to a secondary school using English as the medium of instruction (ehm) ahh where
most of the subjects were taught in English (ehm) so that ahh I think that lasted for seven
years until I entered ahh university which ahh is an English-speaking university where most
ahh lectures examinations ahh reading assignments were all in English. Ahh so I f- I recall
that I think the ahh the biggest ahh difficulty for me is really when switching from primary
school setting in which Chinese is the medium of instruction ahh to a secondary school using
English as a medium of instruction. I still remember that was ahh quite a shock actually. I
got a ahh an English speaking ahh ahh class teacher. Ahh the principal was an English ahh
nearly all the lessons ahh were taught in English except perhaps physical education or of
course Chinese. Ahh so I I I think it had taken me maybe two to three years to adjust to that.
(Ehm) yeah so that ahh that wasn’t very pleasant experience, I would say, in ahh in learning
in my learning of English. But I I think eventually ahh I got over that and then has since used
English ahh as the ahh medium of learning in universities in postgraduate work and and now
in in my workplace I think where English is ahh is really used as the bus- the language of
communication with ahh with ahh the ahh s- with the senior management ehm and and a
large number of colleagues (ehm).
3) Why is it a myth that “Black children are verbally deprived”? Use at least three of
Wolfram’s arguments in support of your answer. If this is a myth, why do people
still believe it? Use at least two of Wolfram’s arguments in support of your answer.
Part 2: Language and gender
4) The section “Do men and women speak alike or differently” from Ahearn Ch. 9
begins with Deborah Tannen’s research (which we also watched in class on Mar 29).
This section then presents more recent research that critiques Tannen’s findings.
Summarize the major conclusions from this more recent research.
5) Describe the linguistic features of the “gay voice” that are mentioned in the Fresh Air
podcast. Avoid using direct quotes, but use linguistic terminology (perhaps the IPA)
to describe what David Thorpe and Susan Sankin discuss. What is the relationship
between being gay and speaking with a “gay voice”? Use support from the podcast
to support your claim.
6) At the end of the Fresh Air podcast, speech pathologist Susan Sankin discusses the
phenomena of “upspeak” and “glottal/vocal fry.” What are common language
attitudes about speakers who use these devices? Is Sankin prescriptive or
descriptive, and what is your evidence?

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fin management for business Essay Dissertation Help

Please write a 200-word report plan for each of the following questions:
1. Discuss how the concepts of agency theory can be used to explain the relationship that exists between the managers of a listed company and the providers of its equity finance. Your answer should include an explanation of the following terms:
(a) asymmetry of information;
(b) agency costs;
(c) the free-rider problem.

2. Distinguish between a primary and a secondary capital market and discuss the role played by these markets in corporate finance.
What are the desirable features of primary and secondary capital markets?

3. A company is planning to offer a discount for payment within 10 days to its customers, who currently pay after 45 days. Only 40 per cent of credit customers would take the discount, although administrative cost savings of €4,450 per year would be gained. If credit sales, which are unaffected by the discount, are €1.6m per year and the cost of short-term finance is 8 per cent, what is the maximum discount that could be offered?

4. Brand plc generates profit after tax of 15 per cent on shareholders’ funds. Its current capital structure is as follows:
Ordinary shares of 50c each 200,000
Reserves 400,000
The board of Brand plc wishes to raise 160,000 from a rights issue in order to expand existing operations. Its return on shareholders’ funds will be unchanged. The current ex dividend market price of Brand plc is 1.90. Three different rights issue prices have been suggested by the finance director: 1.80, 1.60 and 1.40.
Determine the number of shares to be issued, the theoretical ex-rights price, the expected earnings per share and the form of the issue for each rights issue price. Comment on your results.

5. Bugle plc has some surplus funds that it wishes to invest. It requires a return of 15 per cent on corporate bonds and you have been asked for advice on whether it should invest in either of the following bonds which have been offered to it.
(a) Bond 1: 12 per cent bonds redeemable at nominal at the end of two more years. The current market value per £100 bond is £95.
(b) Bond 2: 8 per cent bonds redeemable at £110 at the end of two more years. The current market value per £100 bond is also £95.

6. LJH plc is planning to buy a machine which will cost £900,000 and which is expected to generate new cash sales of £600,000 per year. The expected useful life of the machine will be eight years, at the end of which it will have a scrap value of £100,000. Annual costs are expected to be £400,000 per year. LJH plc has a cost of capital of 11 per cent.
(a) Calculate the payback period, return on capital employed, net present value and internal rate of return of the proposed investment.
(b) Discuss the reasons why net present value is preferred by academics to other methods of evaluating investment projects.

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Human Resource Management – Organisational Behaviour Essay Dissertation Help


So called ‘strong’ Organisational Culture that is disseminated by management is sometimes resisted by individual employees and groups in organisations. Critically discuss how and why this is the case with examples from research based literature.


References to be include:


Knights, D. & Willmott, H. (2012) Introducing Organisational Behaviour and Management, London, Thompson. (This is the core text for this module. An ebook is available via the online library)



Thompson, P. & McHugh, D. (2009), Work organisations: a critical approach, 4th edn, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.


Wilson, F. (2010) Organizational behaviour and work (3rd Edition) Oxford: OUP.


Mullins, L. J., Christy, G., & Mullins, L. J. (2013). Management & organisational behaviour (10th ed.). Harlow, England: Pearson.


Please add some more references related to the topic.








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Assignment Title:​Online Brand Marketing plan (Report) Essay Dissertation Help

Assignment Title:?Online Brand Marketing plan (Report)

Where to hand in: ?TurnitinUK ONLY

Note: ?This assignment contributes to 50% of the total module mark.

Learning Outcomes
4. Research and assess opportunities for the application of digital marketing and communications practices within specific markets

5. Create detailed, actionable e-marketing plans

6. Identify the information, systems and process requirements for successful integrated, customer-focused e-marketing management

7. Apply quantitative techniques to analyse marketing data

Identification of group and individual components:

The assignment is to be completed individually by each student.


Assignment task
For the purposes of this assignment outline and detail an online marketing plan for an organisation based on the scenario below.

Based on your analysis of the scenario you will need to do the following:

• Clearly define the marketing environment for the organisation.
• Using an environmental framework Identify in depth areas of opportunity and weakness and use these to formulate the objectives of your marketing plan. You must use only two of the following frameworks: Porters, SWOT, PEST

• Detail your strategy and how you intend to implement it. You will need to consider the following:

o The niche and target market strategy
o The positioning and differentiation strategy
o The domain name
o SEO strategy with detailed costs, and the amounts of clicks that you can buy on a monthly forecast.

• You will be expected to implement your ideas and therefore you will be required to develop a fully functioning website prototype which includes as a minimum 5 pages. You will need to include a wire frame and a navigational outline to show that the necessary information and planning process has taken place.

• As part of this implementation detail your social media strategy, this will need to include an email newsletter.
• Identify your measurement strategy, what are the key metrics you will use to help you identify your success rate in meeting your objectives. You will need to develop a measurement strategy based on defined online metrics and analytical criteria.
• Reflect on the information and process developments. Carefully consider, style, layout and appropriate e-marketing activities that were integral during the implementation phase.

Reflect on the decisions you have made and the ideas you propose and give full justification.

This is an individual written assignment. 3000 words maximum.

Assignment Scenario – “The Book Club”
You are a Digital Marketing consultant who has been approached by a small family run Book shop business known as “The Book Club” who are based in Huddersfield. They are a small organisation whose primary business revolves around publishing and retailing. They sell Books and normal hardcover/paperback books, and they publish science fiction and fantasy books only. Over the last few years “The Book Club” has struggled in a very competitive market. They have identified that they need to diversify their market and product range but they have no idea on how to accomplish this, should they continue to publish or focus purely on retailing?

Currently they do not have an online presence and no mechanism to engage with their current or past customers. They want you to help remedy this; they envisage that their online presence should be used for acquiring new customers through SEO and retain existing customers via email marketing and social media.

Therefore, your job is to develop an online marketing presence which allows “The Book Club” to compete within the online environment. You will need to write a business case report and create an online presence that allows the “The Book Club” to accomplish their publishing/retailing ambitions.

You must remember that the “The Book Club” has zero experience of the online environment. For this assessment, you will be required to be thorough in your analysis and research and make maximum use of the scenario provided.

Guidance Notes:

You should support your work throughout with evidence from good quality academic (journal articles, textbooks, conference proceedings, etc) and business sources. All material you reference should be cited fully using the standard university style, both within the main body of your report and in a clearly marked References section at the end.

You should ensure that you adhere to the current student regulations regarding assessment (presented in the student handbook), with particular reference to ethical considerations and issues of plagiarism. You will need to hand in your work through TurnitinUK at 23:59pm on the day stated above. It is important that your published URL is pasted on the cover sheet of your work. There is no need for a manual hand in.

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LLP Dissertation’s Proposal Z Essay Dissertation Help

write the proposal for the Dissertation my Dissertation topic is The Market entry strategy innovation and entrepreneurship of Wanda Media Co.Ltd in USA Media Industry.a) Research proposal (10% of the individual student’s mark for the module)
Once a clear idea on the dissertation topic is agreed by the student in consultation with the (intended) dissertation supervisor, each student is required to write a research proposal for the project to be conducted, which should be submitted online via the module Learn page using the TurnItIn facility.
In brief, the research proposal is a preliminary report to help the students clarify their focus, objectives, academic literature, and methods. It should be structured in the following way:
? Your name and contact details (phone and e-mail).
? Your dissertation title, which indicates the proposed area of study (note: this can be modified as the research work progresses).
? A statement of your research question followed by a brief but thorough literature review (including citation of key references) addressing what is currently known about the topic you intend to research.
? Your likely research method (including whether it will be qualitative or quantitative or mixed, and why).
? Preliminary details about:
o How you will collect your data (including sample profile and
measures/interview questions), and
o How you will analyse your data (including a specific mention of which
methods will be used).
? A brief section on any ethical or confidentiality issues that is expected to
encounter in the dissertation.
? A clear timetable for the research plan (using a visual indicator, e.g., Gantt chart).

Extend revision timeframe to 14 days as per terms and conditions.

Please send draft for this order within 48 hours.

Follow instructions and no extension for deadline.

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Watch the film Invictus (Netflix, 2009) Essay Dissertation Help

Written Assignment instruction;
Watch the film Invictus (Netflix, 2009). Using class lectures, textbook readings and online assignments, apply examples from the film Invictus to the 3 questions presented below:

1.Examine Nelson Mandela’s leadership in relation to the leadership material discussed in the textbook, class lectures and online assignments.

2.Compare Nelson Mandela’s approach to change management with one of the change theories discussed in class, the textbook or online assignments.

3.Based on Chapters 16 &amp;amp; 18 of the textbook and class lectures, examine how Nelson Mandela achieved results through communicating and motivating others. (chapters from book:
Management (13th edition) by Schermerhorn and Bachrach. (2015) Published by Wiley.)

paper should be a maximum of three (3) pages, double-spaced in a Microsoft Word document. The page count suggested is the maximum but answers can be shorter if they are well written, concise and include a depth of content.

This assignment will be graded 70% on your ability to correctly apply the material you learned in the readings, lectures and in class discussions and 30% on grammar, spelling and syntax. It is important you edit your answers before turning them in.

pls no outside sources , only the book or the film and answear each question individually not all together.

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