In the present day, technology has portrayed great significance than ever. Information systems have become a management based solution with institutions embracing their use to increase their productivity and service efficiency to the global society. The healthcare industry has wholly incorporated the use of the information in the management and provision of care to the society. No doubts that the transition to a technically based operation has been the source and reason for the improved care in the global society with ultimate satisfaction being attained from the patient side. CRIS information system is an example of an information system embraced by healthcare institutions in the UK, to improve the value of care for the English citizens. This paper seeks to explore the use of CRIS information system within an NHS hospital in England by describing and critiquing its being in the aspects of its need, users, goals, technology, and interaction with other systems, processes, strengths and limitation of the System.
CRIS is the mother of healthcare information systems adopted in England. The NHS hospital for example, has incorporated the CRIS information system used to support patient care, admission, and research activities. With the world transition into a dynamic being, the provision of healthcare services to the society proved to be a great challenge with the population increase, limited infrastructure and the increased demand for the healthcare services. Need for improvement for the management of the healthcare patients, institution processes and increase in the contact between the medical practitioners was urgent. For example, CDN (2016) showcases the increased need for the radiology care in the mid-1990s following the increased demand for the radiology care. CDN, therefore, saw the need to adopting the CRIS radiology information system to help streamline the care processes and procedures to enable an efficient workflow in the radiology department (CDN, 2016).
The sophisticated and complex being of the healthcare sector saw the CRIS healthcare information system widely embraced by the NHS hospitals. Being a communication and networking system, the patients connections to the medical practitioners has tremendously increased at NHS with the patients being able to communicate with the medical practitioners to book appointments and also enquire about their individual healthcare being. Also, the world has become a technical hub with the majority of the activities being done online (Captain, 2009). England citizens find it easy to communicate and be reached at on the internet, a being that has ultimately reduced the congestion at organizations and made delivery service simple in all areas of production. The use of technology was inevitable, and NHS hospital had no option but to adopt the use of the CRIS healthcare information system as an easier way of reaching out to the patients all over England (Zoller & Dutta, 2011). By this, the need for the CRIS healthcare information system at NHS was valid, and the use of CRIS was imperative to increasing the efficiency of healthcare provision.
However, is the adoption of CRIS necessary at a local NHS hospital in England? Despite the increased complex being of the Healthcare industry and the dire increase in the demand for technical management in England, its implementation at an NHS hospilal is alligned with multiple implications that generraly affect the well being of the hospital. The costs of implementing the system at an NHS hospital is high and adversely affects the profitability of the NHS hospital a being that may result to agency conflicts among its core shareholders. It is ironic how technology is embraced by institutions without considering the aftermath and implications of the adopted systems. An NHS hospital needs more than a CRIS information system to an effective management that shall ensure either manual or technological based management that shall see the hospital effectively allocate and manage its resources in a bid to improving the efficiency of the hospital.
The utmost goal of the CRIS information system is to increase the access of the England citizens to best value care and to establish the best care coordination processes. The system focuses on achieving the goal by promoting innovation in the care provision i.e. through research, by providing affordable care to the England society, improving the efficiency of workflow in the NHS hospitals, and developing strong healthcare models on disease prevention at NHS (Haux, 2012). Achieving this is paramount to ensuring utmost efficiency in the running of the NHS hospital and success to the hospital in serving the interests of the England patients.
The core interests covered by the goals are focused and based on serving the society which portrays great importance in serving the society. However, to achieve a wholly successful being the interests of all stakeholders of the institution, the system is ought to embrace a wider sphere that not only focuses on improving the care but also enhancing accountability on resource allocation. The CRIS system embracement at the NHS hospital fails in the aspect and being that it fails to factor the ownership model of the hospital being owned by trust funds. Ultimate accountability is ought to be achieved whereby the system also ranks the resource allocation, performance and effectiveness through metric submissions.
The system serves a wide range of users at the NHS hospital with all the users having different informational needs whose source is in the CRIS healthcare information system. The users of the system include; Nurses, Physicians, Ancillary, Administrative staff, Radiologists, and Patients. All the users of the system are subjected to make great use of the CRIS information system to perform a variety of healthcare related informational tasks regarding the patient care. These users are classified into three major groups that are the medical practitioners (nurses, radiologists, ancillary and the physicians), the administrative staff (record keepers, cashiers, security personnel and the casual workers) and the patients seeking medical care (The Royal Society, 2006).
For the medical practitioners, the NHS CRISS system serves as a research hub and a patient management platform. Using all the patient data stored in the system database, the medical practitioners can research on the prevalence of diseases according to age, gender origin, etc. following the availability of all the required data in the system (Smyth, 2004). With this data available, the NHS medical practitioners are thereby able to establish proper care for their patients and also to effectively manage their patient with regards to their care needs and also for creating appointments with the patients. The research findings from the patient data studies is intended to address theoretical foundations, empirical studies, paradigmatic and methodological issues, and praxis and reflexivity in critical information systems research basis. The certainty and accuracy of the transmitted information on findings stands questionable following the lack of approval and support by the overall healthcare fraternity. This compromises the efficiency of the system with regards to improving the quality of care in England, a status that needs scrutiny to ensure its link with other healthcare bodies to help establish the certainty and relevance of the research findings in establishing prompt health awareness.
The administrative staff uses the institution infrastructure, patients, and the medical practitioner’s data as their informational needs (Lee & Shim, 2012). Using these data, the administrative staff ensures effective coordination and link between the medical practitioners the patients and the NHS infrastructure to ensure a smooth flow of healthcare practices within the institution. The patients, on the other hand, use the NHS CRIS system in communicating with the medical practitioners and the administrative staff in regards to care inquiry. By this, they can ascertain the availability of the medical practitioners, book appointments and receive medical orders (Coronel & Morris, 2014). The system intention hold an imperative position in seeking to achieve utmost efficiency in the quality of care offered to the society. However, it is succinctly evident that perfection is not an indication of defect absence in the NHS management thus backup measures are ought to be established where by a continuous improvement is ought to be undertaken on the system to avoid any possible failures.
Also, exclusively depending on the system to support the smooth running of the organization holds a dangerous path for the firm with great exposure to failure. Transitioning into the use of technology means the seizure in the use of the non-technological based system unless within the small practices in the NHS hospital. A failure in the system exposes all the activities at great risk into a standstill, a being that should be examined to alternative setup systems to support the hospital practices. By this move, the hospital is set out onto establishment of a guaranteed system that shall see the hospital meet all the desired interests of its stakeholders that is the patients, medical practitioners, the England government, healthcare bodies and the society at large.
The business process in the NHS CRIS health information system operates around the provision of quality care to the England society. Among the core tasks that the CRIS health information system supports at NHS hospital in England include; Management of the patient registration with the hospital, Management of patient admissions discharges and transfers, Storing all the patient protocol data and providing bed management services.Writing and issuing medical orders, Supporting the appointment booking services, Retrieving patient laboratory and radiology results, and Documenting medication care frameworks.
With these tasks, all the user’s needs have met an interaction that the system coordinates. All these tasks or processes are undertaken by different subsystems within the CRIS health care system adopted by an NHS hospital in England (Wua, Wanga, & Lind, 2010). With the coordinated being, the interaction is made able by the system inputs. The system inputs include the database containing all the policies, standards, guidelines, interfaces such as the Picture, Archiving and Communication System (PACS), reports, billings and deployable web links to ensure utmost connectivity in the system (CDN, 2016).
Using the inputs, the system processes the data by converting it to a user’s specification needs. For example, on the inquiry of a patient’s health status, the system uses the data available in the system database to provide the patient with care prescriptions for correction of the ailment suffered by the patient. The provided prescriptions are the systems output with the NHS issuing it to the patient inform of a document, visual display, audio or a printed photo. With this linked system being the NHS patient can access their care output at any time and even assess their care history from the system database (Menon, Lee, & Eldenburg, 2011).
Other than interacting with the patients and the medical practitioners, the system also enables interaction with the external systems such as the political, social and economic systems. Among the major goals of the CRIS system, it is not limited to serving the NHS patients but also the larger England and global society. As a research tool, the system results from diseases study results and statistics are shared out to the society whereby on increased rates the data acts as an advisory source for the England government to contain an outbreak. On the other hand, not being an NHS patient, the common society member shall be informed by the system following the interconnectedness to the larger internet and social platforms (CDN, 2016). This being makes the system a globally interactive that focuses on improving the quality of care provided.
CDN(2016) outlines that CRIS is an HL-7 compliant a technology that allows the system to integrate and link with other external systems by sharing data, integrating data and issuing out output in the form of encrypted reports. Based on larger scale deployments, the system is proven by being efficient in offering electronic medical record solutions an aspect that is majorly employed in ensuring efficiency in care provision. Following its Conceptual database design, data is Integrated to help in establishing a system project plan, as it provides an overall list of the processes and sub-processes prescribed for the database system (Connolly & Begg, 2005) Its arrangement entails mapping all the models and resources for tables to create an effective dependency, independency, correlation and functional relationship among the employed healthcare resources.
On enhancing the networking and communications between the medical practitioners and the patients, the system employs the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) in disseminating the results to the patients this also entails a unique audio version to recognize and disseminate audio results to the patients (CDN, 2016). Besides the CRIS system is built on independent hardware technologies that entail the Silverlight and the Microsoft SQL for the database, a being that gives the system to be applied on the common PCs without having to incur many expenses implement its use. The technology also sets in at a time when the global society is in dire need of a technologically based solution in the healthcare industry making the tech highly available to the society. With the globalized world, the system plays a great part in unifying and linking community together a being that meets the intentions of the developers and an achievement to the system goal.
Beyond doubts, the CRIS healthcare system is a great revolutionary in the healthcare services coordination. Having been built on a user-friendly framework, the system has stood out to being greatly usable and consequently effective for the global need keeping in mind the informational needs of the English citizens. With the extensive data entailed in the system database, the system can easily process and provide the users with the healthcare information needed enabling satisfaction from the patient’s side (Chanda & Shen, 2009). Also, is useful to the practitioners by allowing implementation of best practices to improve the value of care provided at the NHS hospital by providing real-time data as required.
Still examining the efficiency of data dissemination, the CRIS system proves to be effective in providing custom information despite the multiple being of the users; the system manages to provide custom data to each user as needed (CDN, 2016). This effectiveness guarantees accuracy in the combined coordination of work flow within the NHS hospital as each user is exposed to the rightful data that shall serve their interests. This also entails the provision of custom formats on every data provided allowing ease in the usage of the system output as the practitioners shall easily evaluate patients being and the patients shall also be able to follow easily the instructions or advice provided by the medical practitioners (Haldar, 2015).
Being able to be accessed by the society remotely, the system portrays great success in its adaptability strengths as it can be able to serve the growing demand for remote care. This also reflects the extensiveness of the employed database that can be easily upgraded without destructing the system processes, an aspect attributed from its independent technological being that allows the hardware to operate independently (Connolly & Begg, 2005). This allows the system to be able to serve the growing number of patients at NHS without failures and also allow access to the archive information that shall allow efficiency in patient monitoring and also used as a benchmark for improving the quality of care in the future. However, the system is ought to embrace a continued improvement being characterized by continuous improvement to ensure maintenance of a stable being for the system in running the firm.
On the other hand, a security breach is a threat and a great limitation of the CRIS information system as, despite the existence of a built-in security firewall, the system stands vulnerable to unauthorized access that may hamper the system efficiency. Their accessibility from the internet is majorly the core source of weakness as the unauthorized breaches may alter the inbuilt information, temporary or permanently destroying the healthcare data compromising the efficiency of quality care. Also, the security weakness stands as a great limitation to the efficiency of the system as on altering the information, the society at large may be misguided a move that could result in great fatalities.
Not considering the technology literacy levels of the medical practitioners at NHS, the simple orientation of the system may not be enough to set them out to serve the English citizens via the system. Individuals are at times believed to being resistant to change hence they require ultimate training to assure their effectiveness in the system based care provision (Piers Myers, 2012). Lack of full knowledge sees the NHS medical practitioners become ineffective in their tasks a being that may compromise the effectiveness of the Institute (Burke, 2010). This also communicates the efficiency of the database as yes the database is equipped with enormous data regarding the healthcare needs, but this does not translate into great benefits to the users a being that requires the elimination of all raw data into data that can translate into benefits (Bidgoli, 2010). Failure to attending to these limitations, the success of the system in the dynamic being of the future is questioned.
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