Please answer each question as briefly as possible while still being complete. In other words look for ways to be concise with the writing. Examples of such writing can be found in James H. Brown (Foundations of Ecology, Classic Papers with Commentaries) and to some extent in Chris Turney (Bones, Rocks and Stars). There is no formal length limit to the answers. Be specific and precise. Even if the core idea can be expressed very fast, support and build around that answer from the readings assigned to give the context of the people and ideas of the time the question pertains to.
look at writers and Ecologist like H.A. Gleason, Frederic E. Clements, Stephen A. Forbes, Henry Chandler Cowles,
- Scale is important in ecology. Several authors in assigned readings in this class have discussed different types of scale. Please describe types of scale and the role of scale in how ecosystems operate.
- The niche is an important concept in ecology. Describe what the modern definition of niche is. How does niche relate to Gleason’s concept of ecosystems versus the view of Clements?
- How did Nicholson, Lindeman, and Elton help ecology move from the Forbes/Gleason/Clements phase to the Hutchinson/Paine/Brown phase? It will help to define how ecology defined during these two different time periods.
- Dating methods are important for ecological studies. Knowing how things used to be at different times in the past is important. For example: good dating allow ecosystemsof the past to be compared to ecosystems that came before, or after, or at the same time. Please describe the different dating methods available to researchers. Creating a graph or diagram showing the different time windows may be useful here.
- NPP is another key concept in ecology and is discussed in Lecture 10. Given the concept of NPP and energy loss between trophic levels what does it mean for the health (sustainability, stability, future adaptation) of ecosystems that about 75% of the world arable land is under the management of humans for farming and ranching (Livestock’s Long Shadow Report 2006).
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