Table of Contents
Statement of the Problem.. 5
Purpose of the Study. 6
Justification of the Study. 6
Significance of the Study. 7
Review of Literature. 8
Research Questions. 11
Research Objectives. 11
Research approach.. 12
Research design ……………………………………………………………………………………………13
Data Analysis. 15
Access issues. 16
Ethical Considerations. 16
Plan of Impact 17
Time Plan.. 17
The government of Oman devotes attention and care to educational reforms and development in all its institutions. The main aim is to update the curriculum, to raise the standards, and to enrich education for its citizens. The key purpose of this research proposal is to make graduates able to meet the needs of today’s dynamic changing world. Therefore, the importance of assigning to the development of our human resources with technological applications in order to create a future generation that can deal effectively with demographic changes and contribute positively and confidently to national development has been recognized fully. Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) has been indicated as an upcoming paradigm in the field of educational technology (Porcaro, 2011). This research will explore the potentials and profound benefits of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) specifically within a classroom level. CSCL entails how technology-supported collaborative learning can foster sharing and distribution of expertise and knowledge amongst various community members as well as enhance peer activities and interaction in groups (Porcaro, 2011). Classrooms are defined as communities of learners who work together to build knowledge and understanding (Wang & Chen, 2012). The study will be carried out in the Arab Open University which is a privately owned international institution. This study will strive to respond to analysis which calls for further research on CSCL. Skeptical views find computer supported collaborative learning as an overwhelming trend; for instance, there is an assumption that if CSCL is intensively used, there are high chances of experiencing various difficulties in the process of introducing the technology (Stahl, 1999). However this emerging paradigm, Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning can provide a solution for effective learning in technology enhanced learning contexts where students get engaged in learning with others within a collaborative environment (Blaxter, Hughes, & Tight, 2006). The research investigates the factors that could influence the use of CSCL in the Omani Higher Education system. Critical realistic ontology and the use of mixed data collecting methods will underpin the research. Interviews will be conducted to seek for deep understanding on the topic while questionnaires will be used to collect information on CSCL. Classroom observations will be conducted to investigate how CSCL is implemented in real situations. The proposed research will not only provide the academe with CSCL academic benefits but will also reveal the socio cultural skills empowered by computer supported collaborative learning.
Education platforms; social cultural approach; social constructivist approach; Oman; Computer-Supported Collaborated Learning (CSCL)
Educational research on student achievement has emphasized the use of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL), outlining positive effects that have been seen it employed in higher educational institutions (Wang & Burton, 2010). The educational researches aim to bridge the gap between real-world job-market requirements and capabilities and classroom instruction. The rapid increase in the use of computers in higher education, particularly the shifting interest of most universities delivering their courses on a web-based platform has resulted in the resurgence of non-traditional delivery and course design methods among educators (Wang & Chen, 2012). According to Altbach and Knight (2007), CSCL emphasizes on student collaboration, in which students can react to classroom issues in isolation to resources and materials posted online by their instructors. Further, it promotes interaction and communication among students as they learn through expression of questions, pursuance of inquiry lines collaboratively as they teach one another and observe how others learn (Wang & Burton, 2010).
The stimulation and sustenance of productive interaction among students through CSCL is a difficult achievement requiring skilful coordination, planning and implementation of pedagogy, curriculum and technology. Grosh (2013) posits that students’ abilities can be fostered through the use of technology in learning, giving learners access to the rapid changing world and their thoughts revolutionized. Wang and Chen (2012) reiterate that CSCL can arouse motivation and awareness during learning while engaging multicultural students with varied learning abilities to work in the direction of a common goal together. This research study provides highlights to the CSCL field in the context of higher education classrooms. It will examine the use of computer technology in supporting collaborative learning inside Higher Education (HE) classrooms in Oman.
The pedagogic practices used in HE classrooms in Oman and the ministerial policy behind those practices will be identified by/using…. The socio-cultural and socio-constructivist theory will be used to explore the need for and benefits of implementing CSCL in classrooms as learning and knowledge are social while collaboration has been regarded essential in the promotion of effective learning by Wang and Chen (2012).
The awareness of the teachers towards CSCL will be understood through this research by finding out if there is training for the teachers in using technology for learning and teaching purposes. There will be investigation of the technology resources available in a variety of institutions and the way they could be used for students of different backgrounds to unite them in studying collaboratively in light of the socio-cultural theory embracing the generation of computers. The socio-cultural theory originates with Vygotsky (1980) who emphasizes that in a given social environment, interaction is vitally crucial to student learning as it promotes cognitive development in a proximal development zone. Moreover, there will be identification of the challenges which may hinder the implementation of CSCL in Oman higher education classrooms through this research.
The problem is that in Oman classrooms students have not been provided with opportunities for independent learning that are collaborative enough and mostly depend on teachers as generators of information and constructors of knowledge. Collaborative learning is mentioned in the curriculum but teachers do not find the importance of its implementation in improving student learning experiences. There is enactment of particular policies by developed nations such as the U.S. and the United Kingdom for the implementation of CSCL to be successful (Vuopala, Hyvönen, & Järvelä, 2015).
CSCL is practised nationally by some countries while Oman practices CSCL within the level of the classroom. Although the CSCL development has received significant stimulus and gained momentum in the educational systems of developed nations like the United States of America, unforeseen challenges and barriers to its design, dissemination and implementation have become more and more apparent in Oman ranging from financial constraints to knowledge deficiency on the vitality of employing CSCL in classrooms. This is because Oman’s education sector has not fully and transformatively taken advantage of the innovative educational and collaborative softwares in its academic curriculum in regard to CSCL design and implementation (Porcaro, 2011). Valuable resources promoting its successful implementation have been invested and established in various institutions in developed nations like the University of Hawaii that set up the Laboratory for Interactive learning technologies (LILT), the project of computer based collaborative group-work initiated by David McConnell at the Sheffield University, the use of asynchronous platform in the Georgia Institute of Technology to promote collaborative learning, and the Sloan Center for Asynchronous Learning Environment (SCALE) in the Illinois University.
This research study will explore the socio-cultural and socio-constructive (Hewitt, 2002) theories to provide a current and an in-depth understanding of CSCL as they have attracted researchers of computer collaborative learning and knowledge building. Moreover, it will focus on finding out how effective implementation of CSCL in Oman postgraduate education and curriculum will promote interaction amongst students while improving the outcomes of language learning.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the current trends of collaborative learning and to provide new platforms where teachers and students will enjoy working collaboratively using the new collaborative learning platforms. In so doing, the synchronous and asynchronous platforms of computer collaborative learning will be explored to provide an in-depth insight into the importance of employing CSCL in higher education classrooms in Oman.
Being a supervisor in the ministry of education for 16 years now, I have noticed that socialization among students in classrooms is strictly prohibited under the misguided notion by the teachers that their job specification demands that they merely impart knowledge to the students. More commonly, some teachers are perceived to be incompetent and lazy by the community, in which case teachers perceive monitoring class groups in action and reviewing their work to be an undesirably demanding activity with relativity to traditional classroom (Porcaro, 2011).
A research on independent learning was previously conducted in Sultan Qaboos University and looked at the problem on the teaching perspective. The study identified the importance of getting students to learn in groups inside classrooms something that has been practiced in our schools for a long time (Wang & Chen, 2012). Still teachers continue with lecturing inside classrooms despite the presence of such groups. Another research was done on the influence of collaborative learning in language learning. This study showed how teachers could participate in classrooms as members of the groups instead of being knowledge sources. The teachers’ role as the study emphasized was to initiate a problem and then take part in discussions. This study did not specify the size of the group and how teachers could move from group to group without wasting a lot of students’ learning time. The researcher pointed out that because of the limitations of the study further research on the topic was necessary (Porcaro, 2011).
Based on the research findings, other people might find the result of this study interesting and helpful. When teachers find out the benefits and strategies for implementing successful collaborative learning, they can improve their teaching methodology and the students’ learning strategies. Instructors need CSCL platforms that will help them prepare class materials, answer questions, provide feedback as well as mark assignments (Roberts, 2005). Similarly, students need to exchange ideas and communicate collaboratively as well as planning class related schedules and delivering reports in a timely manner. Parents might be influenced by collaborative learning via video conferencing as it could move their children further to collaborate on a global perspective. Policy makers as well can understand the detriments of current classroom practices and can improve the current learning programmes.
There is an increasing emphasis on the employment or implementation of CSCL from a global perspective, in higher education. Roberts (2005) argued that Europe had played host to over eight CSCL conferences while the U.S. had hosted 11 conferences stressing on the benefits of employing CSCL in classrooms. Prominent conferences include the UK’s Networked Learning Conferences, International Association for the Study of Cooperation in Education (IASCE), International Conferences on Computers in Education (ICCCE) as well as Web-Based Education conferences (WBE) (Roberts, 2005).
Wang and Burton (2010) argue that CSCL is used as a pedagogical tool with the design of promoting individual learning and engagement for deeper understanding. Group cooperation is emphasized by collaborative learning where learners work towards a common goal together (Grosch, 2013). This is possible through the use of synchronous and asynchronous collaborative platforms. Through CSCL, collaborative learning here is in two key groups: synchronous and asynchronous collaborative learning. Synchronous is mainly web-based with the use of emails and bulletin boards that are web-based while asynchronous is an audio or video-based, text-based, simultaneous participant interaction (Cao, Griffin & Bai, 2009).
Synchronous and asynchronous collaborative platforms such as e-conferencing, also known as web-conferencing, has been used over time as a virtual classroom, allowing real time interaction to occur amongst multiple users in a simultaneous manner through internet helping university students to make demonstrations and presentations while leading or engaging in discussions. Through this platform, students can engage in synchronous communications using text chat, video, emoticons, app sharing, interactive whiteboards and instant polling (Cao, Griffin & Bai, 2009). Synchronous platforms that are prevalent in higher education institutions of developed nations include WebEx, Adobe Connect, Saba Centra, and Blackboard Collaborate (Benjamin, 2008).
An analysis conducted by Reushle and Loch (2008) concludes that synchronous and asynchronous platforms comprising of audio and visual media result in the creation of Communities of Practice (CoP) as they bridge cultural believes and differences. Martin, Parker, and Deale (2012) showed that synchronous communication promotes enhanced and definitive social interaction as students can use the electronic whiteboard to write and hold discussions while sharing desktops via application sharing. Reushle and Loch (2008) discovered that web-conferencing softwares globally connect postgraduate students enabling them to communicate and collaborate through text, shared whiteboard, audio and video media. They further consider web conferencing computer technology as an approach that is student-centred offering student participation flexibility (Shi, 2010).
Collaborative learning in Oman has not met the academic expectations and therefore, has not been established as the envisioned comprehensive tool. Regardless of the fact that there has not been effective implementation of collaborative learning in Oman in language teaching, there is still a potential for success. Successful implementation of CSCL in the globe has majorly played a role using a localized approach in the improvement of the quality of higher education, thus CSCL can also be successful in Oman (Spann, 2012).
The description of internationalization is the practices and policies that are undertaken by academic institutions and systems so that there can be coping with the academic contest globally (Altbach & Knight, 2007). There is more interconnection of the world especially economically but percolation has taken place in that interconnection into other human life aspects like education. There is development of new tools geared towards the improvement of the process of learning and ensuring that certain global standards are met. Improvement has occurred tremendously when there is collaboration among learners through technology and its educational use is becoming prevalent gradually (Parham, 2014).
In Oman the policies of higher education need alignment with global trends. Oman’s government is encouraging foreign institutes and universities to open branches in Oman for integration of practice and creation of opportunities for students in pursuit of higher education in Oman rather than travelling abroad since there is potential of CSCL in enhancing these initiatives (Brandenburg, 2012). Affiliation of some universities in Oman that are privately owned with other universities that are foreign accredited is evident for quality assurance. In order to support the local experience, there is legal binding of having such an affiliation by the institutions.
Internationally, the view of collaborative learning is as a social constructivist philosophy as well as a socio-cultural theory involving student acculturation into a learning community for the sake of knowledge construction (Wang & Chen, 2012).
The Socio-Constructivist Perspective puts emphasis on students’ need to master novel learning approaches through interaction with each other (Weinberger, 2003). The perspective expands on cognitive development in learners, stressing on interaction among learners than classroom-based actions. According to Oztok, Zingaro, Brett and Hewitt (2013), individual development enhances individual participation in learning social interactions, producing new, individual student states that promote more sophisticated student-related social interactions. Weinberger (2003) further reiterates that the approach boosts collaborative learning through enhancing individual development in the context of social interaction.
The Socio-Cultural Theory on the other hand directs its focus on causal relationship existent between the cognitive development of an individual and social interaction hailing from proximal development zone initiated by Vygotsky (1980). This is the prevalent distance between potential development levels and the level of actual development determined through adult guidance problem solving as well as collaborative interaction amongst learners (Roberts, 2005). The approach maps internal individual cognitive changes onto a social interaction causal effect. It further emphasizes that the learner employs lessons acquired during collaborative sessions such as online-based asynchronous platforms to solve the same problems independently. This, as Shaw (2015) summarizes, enhances peer review internalization which starts with self-review. Vygotsky’s “zone of proximal development” provides definitions of meta-conceptions evolving as learned, acquired and internalized after a social interaction period. The socio-cultural philosophy supports collaborative learning as a catalyst that helps meta-conceptions acquired during social interactions to mature into internalized and learned concepts.
There is not only improvement of the learning process through CSCL but also acceleration. Through intercultural communications in CSCL, there is belief that stimulation of students for language awareness can occur. Teachers in these settings are not restricted by limitations of time and place as co-teaching sessions are conducted (Williams & Lee, 2015). Occurrence of relevant learning through the interaction of students with the experiences of external and internal world is evident (Wang & Chen, 2012). When implementing CSCL, different countries around the world have utilized various methodologies. A difference in perspectives is revealed through a comparison between Oman and some countries used in dealing with various CSCL aspects.
In line with the research objectives outlined herein, the study will seek to answer the following central question:
How does Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning result in enhancing knowledge construction and learning autonomy in higher education learning? We then put forward the following sub-questions, building on the study’s theoretical base, to help research the central question:
- What are the pedagogical practices being used currently in Oman higher education classrooms based on policy documents and student perceptions?
- How will effective implementation of CSCL in Oman HE classrooms improve language learning and promote knowledge construction from instructor and student perspectives?
- What policy related challenges does the effective implementation of CSCL in HE classrooms encounter in Oman based on prevalent policy documents?
- Investigate the benefits of CSCL and explore its challenges
- Discover how students could use computers to learn collaboratively inside language classrooms.
- Explore platforms that are available for CSCL suitable for classroom use
Research Approach Methods
A systematic understanding of the implications of CSCL in promoting autonomous learning and knowledge construction amongst postgraduate students in Oman requires the examination of multiple CSCL related literatures. Consequently, the mixed methods approach will be employed as the methodological approach to this study. Several researchers and scholars identify the evolution of the approach in multi-trait multimethod conceptual matrix and psychology as indicated by Creswell et al. (2003) which emphasizes the need to triangulate multiple qualitative and quantitative data and information sources. The text’s data collection and analysis entails the collaborative integration of both qualitative and quantitative evidential, observational, textual and statistical data in a given single research.
The research approach will be useful in capturing both of the best qualitative and quantitative approaches. Although various terms like multimethod, synthesis, qualitative and quantitative method, integrating and multimethodology are all terms that researchers have used to refer to the approach, recent researchers and scholars call it “mixed methods” (Creswell et al., 2003). The use of both open-ended qualitative info and close-ended quantitative evidence will prove valuable to have an in-depth understanding of presenting the research problem. Moreover, the approach provides a quantitative research structure and a flexible qualitative inquiry (Wisker, 2007). As such, I will seek to understand and compare literatures and knowledge claims based on pragmatic reasons regarding the employment of CSCL in higher education classrooms through a broad survey. The mixed methods entails two methods of data collection namely, sequential explanatory and exploratory strategies of gathering information. Exploratory interviews provide text information resulting in a database constituting of both qualitative and quantitative data. On a basic level, the strategy emphasizes on the use of quantitative data to aid the interpretation of findings from qualitative data collection approach, with a primary focus of exploring a given phenomenon (Wisker, 2007). Conversely, the explanatory strategy entails collecting and analysing quantitative data followed by the collection and testing of qualitative data, providing comprehensive explanation and interpretation of relationships. This study will use a mixed-methods research approach with a sequential explanatory design, in which quantitative data will be collected from a large number of sources and participants who will be typically representative of the study’s sample. The study will subsequently generalize the results obtained from all respondents to constitute a population, focusing on qualitative open-ended interviews that will aid the collection of detailed views from respondents. This will entail a pluralistic, consequence-oriented, and problem-centred approach to the pivotal research question (Creswell, 2013).
The collection of both quantitative and qualitative info will be followed by a development of rationale for mixing the methods and integrating the collected data at various inquiry stages. I will then present visual pictures of the procedure employed in the study while employing both quantitative and qualitative research practices (Creswell et al., 2003).
With respect to participants, instructors from higher education institutions in Oman will be invited and requested to participate in the research survey through LinkedIn groups and Google mail. This will be done by sending them an email through Google mail comprising of the survey’s hyperlink and a message highlighting the purpose of the study. LinkedIn will be helpful in enabling us acquire the instructors email addresses and contacts. Select Survey will be used to administer the online survey (Benjamin, 2014). Faculty members will be informed that their participation will be voluntary and confidential.
I am concerned about the sample size as 25 students is too few to allow for any inferential statistics to be computed. You need a larger sample size. Typically, 30 is the minimum number (30 students, 30 teachers), if you are planning to use a survey (quantitative data collection).
Methods (combine with previous, ensuring logical flow of the section, and no redundancy)
Data will be collected from May to June 2017. A total of 25 higher education students and 11 instructors have been invited to participate in the study. Data will be collected using observations that will help perceive the behaviour and experience of participants by actively engaging in their classroom activities. The method of data collection will assume a sequential explanatory nature. Emerging CSCL issues from closed- and open-ended questions on both quantitative and qualitative data will be considered as well. The explanatory strategy entails collecting and analysing quantitative data followed by the collection and testing of qualitative data. Such a sequential data collection strategy will provide a thorough understanding of the research problem. Quantitative data will be given much emphasis, after which the data collected and analysed from the explanatory strategy will be integrated to the exploratory data collection method for interpretation. This will facilitate the employment of results acquired from a qualitative data collection exercise to examine results from a quantitative one. Explanatory collection and analysis of data will entail gathering of instrumental numeric and non-numeric information using measures like open-ended questions in a questionnaire which will be analysed thereafter (Creswell, 2013).
Closed questionnaires will be distributed seeking to reveal student perception to group discussion satisfaction, team development, computer collaborative learning, collaborative interaction and problem-solving (Merriam & Tisdell, 2015). The analysis of data from the questionnaires will involve the use of scales which will be rated using a scale that Garner and Scott (2013) regard as 5-point likert-type, which allows respondents to express their perceptions on how much they disagree or contend with particular statements. Internal consistency reliability will be employed to determine the reliability of the scales. Data collected from questionnaires will be categorized to make sense of the data in order to highlight the important message, features and findings. The presentation of ideas in the form of a narrative will render individual cases authentic. Holistic representation will be self-explanatory.
After receiving consent to attend various classes, I will subsequently conduct observations on how the use of CSCL technology is being implemented and to what extent that instructor and student perception affects its successful and effective implementation. I may be compelled to record direct quotes as I consider myself a participant observer. The descriptive notes acquired from observation will be recorded as descriptive notes with information on the size of a given class, the setting, instruction and type of work involved as well as student reactions to synchronous collaborative interaction. Afterwards, the collected data will be analysed using the 19th version of IBM SPSS (Korenberg, 2007), after which inferential and descriptive results will be reported. I hope that by using the data collection methods outlined herein and the sample size, the findings on participants’ perceptions will be consistent and reliable. This can be attributed to the fact that the data collection methods employed are not anonymous although the confidentiality of participants is guaranteed.
Subsequently, I will conduct semi-structured interviews, after which data from semi-structured qualitative interviews will be entered into a computer to enable the possibility of counting and analysing.
Moreover, the analysis of data from semi-structured interviews will focus on exploring intragroup communication and interaction as well as collaboration levels amongst HE students. The flexible nature of semi-structured interviews and discussions creates a base for rich data collection (Korenberg, 2007). However, there could be limitations as to how to extract meaning from a collection of individual cases.
The survey data will be analysed using the 19th version of IBM SPSS (Korenberg, 2007), which will allow for reporting inferential and descriptive results. Internal consistency reliability will be employed to determine the reliability of the survey. Data analysis will be carried out to describe the phenomenon through the process of labelling (Korenberg, 2007). In so doing, data from semi-structured qualitative interviews will be entered into a computer to enable the possibility of counting and analysing. Closed questionnaires will be distributed seeking to reveal student perception to group discussion satisfaction, team development, computer collaborative learning, collaborative interaction and problem-solving (Merriam & Tisdell, 2015). The scales will be rated using a scale that Garner and Scott (2013) regards as 5-point likert-type, which allows respondents to express their perceptions on how much they disagree or contend with particular statements. – Please re-organize so that first everything relevant to quantitative data collection and data analysis is presented, and then everything relevant to qualitative data collection and data analysis is presented. It is very difficult to follow.
Moreover, data analysis will focus on the methodology in exploring intragroup communication and interaction as well as collaboration levels amongst HE students. The flexible nature of semi-structured interviews and discussions creates a base for rich data collection (Korenberg, 2007). On the other hand data collected from questionnaires will be categorized to make sense of the data in order to highlight the important message, features and findings. The presentation of ideas in the form of a narrative will render individual cases authentic. Holistic representation will be self-explanatory. However, there could be limitations as to how to extract meaning from a collection of individual cases – such as what? .
Participants will be teachers and students from the Arab Open University who I have a professional relationship with. Participants will be required to share their perceptions on computer-mediated interaction and communication as well as collaborative learning and problem-solving through a closed questionnaire. Questionnaires will be purposefully distributed through professional networks to instructors and students who use computer-technology to work out their assignments, group discussions and other classroom related activities.
As a consequence of the blend of research with practice, I already know my participants. Nevertheless, this access will not be taken for granted and I will have to seek for a written approval from the University Deanship. Discussions with the institution and with my participants will be held prior to the interviews and the surveys to make it clear to the target audience about the research requirements and to feel tension free. A pilot study (Korenberg, 2007) will be carried out between May and June 2017 to discover the validity of each question and to check time management.
I will have to inform my potential participants of the possible risks of their participation in this research and that they can withdraw whenever they feel necessary. A reflexive approach to ethics will be maintained to help research participants to acknowledge honesty and practice ethical maturity which requires them to assume objectivity while helping me maintain and acknowledge the research interests that are implicit in the critical agenda of our research which is CSCL. An ethical approval will be used to manage the confidentiality of participants and the subsequent storage of data. I will have to manage and assess unforeseen and changing circumstances. In my research journal I will privately consider and record all dilemmas. There may be some ethical challenges posed by the social and cultural setting of the research where there may be lack of cohesion, respect and trust from some of the participants due to their age, traditional and religious values and customs. This requires consent from the participants as well as maintaining constant communication with them. Faculty members will be informed that their participation will be voluntarily and confidential.
Methodology: There is much redundant information. This section needs to be re-organized to get rid off these redundancies. Be precise, specific, and include only relevant to each section details.
A statement that ethical approval will be obtained from UoL and from your home university prior to any data collection needs to be included.
The classroom environment, as Wang and Chen (2012) indicated, can support CSCL establishment and its subsequent implementation in higher education institutions. The study will explore the vitality of teacher’s perception towards collaborative learning in classrooms in the promotion of knowledge construction and learning autonomy. Porcaro (2011) argued that classroom collaboration is central to the implementation of CSCL technology to improve learning experience. The study will also focus on plans proposed by a study conducted by Hewitt (2002) concluding that instructors ought to set goals and establish classroom epistemological environment that upholds CSCL establishment in classrooms to promote self-regulation and impart significant effects on the learning of HE students.
What are the benefits of computer collaborative learning?
|Tick where appropriate||Strongly Agree||Agree||Neutral||Disagree||Strongly Disagree|
|1||Collaborative learning will make you more active and participate more in class activities.|
|2||You will be in a position to share the difficulties you are facing more easily with others.|
|3||It will develop your oral communication skills.|
|4||There will be stimulation of the critical thinking skills and will also help you in clarifying ideas through discussions.|
|5||You will be more responsible towards each other.|
|6||There will be the development of higher level thinking skills.|
|7||Collaborative learning will increase the rate of retaining content.|
|8||It will make individuals more satisfied with the entire learning experience.|
|8||There will be a wide diversity in understanding concepts once learning is conducted in a collaborative way.|
|10||Individuals will be in a position to criticize ideas and not people when collaborative learning is used.|
|11||There will be the promotion of higher achievement and class attendance with the use of collaborative learning.|
|12||The rate of staying on a certain task for a long time will be high, and the learner will also be less disruptive.|
|13||There will be a high development of empathy in the learner.|
|14||There will be high expectations in the entire learning experience with the use of collaborative learning.|
|15||There will be the development of a more positive attitude among the teachers and other staff in the school.|
|16||The different learning styles among learners will also be efficiently addressed with the use of collaborative learning.|
|17||The feeling of classroom anxiety will also be hugely reduced in the learners when being taught with the collaborative method.|
|18||There will be a higher motivation to gain knowledge and new concepts with the application of collaborative learning.|
|19||The socio-cultural skills will be more enhanced or improved with the use of collaborative learning.|
|20||Collaborative learning will also have a positive effect on the development of one to join the workforce upon completing studies.|
|21||There will be reduced pressure on the time allocated to learn various concepts or contents with the use of collaborative learning.|
|22||Collaborative learning will also enhance the development of other skills apart from those in the line of education of gaining knowledge.|
|23||The ability to have self-control will also be more improved with the use of collaborative learning in the classroom setting.|
|24||There will be a high level of adaptation to the environment once collaborative learning is adopted.|
|25||The use of collaborative learning will support the passive learners to be more self-directed. (Answer if you are a passive student).|
|26||There will be the accomplishment of more tasks that would not be completed individually with the use of collaborative learning.|
|27||There will be the enhancement of practice and awareness of the knowledge being learned with collaborative learning in place?|
|28||There will be an improvement of the overall performance in the areas that are being taught with the collaborative learning in place.|
|29||There will be less supervision from the teachers hence improve the level of interaction with the other learners and hence expand the development the skills of social interaction.|
|Tick where appropriate||Strongly Agree||Agree||Neutral||Disagree||Strongly disagree|
|1||There will be the promotion of innovation in teaching and classroom systems as well.|
|2||There will be the completion of more tasks within a short period once collaborative learning is applied.|
|3||It will be easier to relate with learners once collaborative learning is used.|
|4||There will be reduced workload in passing knowledge to the learners once the collaborative learning is applied.|
|5||There will be a high expectation of the overall performance of the learners once collaborative learning is applied.|
|6||Collaborative learning will result in the development of more skills in the classroom setting for easy management of students.|
|7||There will be more learning opportunities for the learners with the collaborative learning put in place.|
|8||Students who have a passive or maladjusted direction will need to be guided more through the collaborative learning sessions.|
|9||Collaborative learning will give room for new learning strategies and self-directed learning as the initial step to provide guidance when the collaborative learning begins to be applied in the classrooms.|
|10||More methods will be required to make the learners conscious of the valuable rational experiences that will occur upon engaging and showing that they have interest and efforts in the collaborative mode of learning.|
|11||The confidence of learners will be boosted once the collaborative learning begins to be used in the classrooms.|
|12||There will be the development of a deeper foundation of knowledge that is learned through the collaborative learning method.|
|13||Collaborative learning will require the use of traditional learning styles for more efficiency.|
|14||It will be necessary to monitor the students who came from different backgrounds regarding culture and learning abilities for them to gain effectively with the application of collaborative learning.|
|15||Constant evaluation will be required among the learners once collaborative learning begins to be applied to the teaching and learning experience to see if it is efficient.|
|16||Collaborative learning will result in the creation of an environment that will enable students to practice and build their skills in leadership.|
|17||The large lecture classes can easily be personalized with the use of collaborative learning.|
|18||It is essential to come up with methods that will enhance learning in students more rather than depend on the use of collaborative learning only.|
|19||Collaborative learning will encourage the use of alternate student assessment techniques apart from the ones that were being employed in the past.|
|20||There will be improved relations with the students when collaborative learning is used.|
|21||Collaborative learning increases the chances of conflicts among students and it is thus necessary to have the conflict resolution skills in hand to cater for such situations once they occur.|
|22||Collaborative learning will fit well or be in line with the approach used by the constructivist.|
|23||There will be the formation of more positive heterogeneous relationships with the use of collaborative learning.|
|24||The more positive attitude developed by students towards the teachers is also a motivation to supervise them during the collaborative learning session and ensure that they are doing what is expected.|
What are the benefits of computer supported collaborative learning?
- Are you aware of computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) or is there any form of training required to be conducted in using technology for purposes of learning and teaching?
- Are there any skills that will be added on your part once (CSCL) is introduced?
- How will the introduction of (CSCL) in teaching language achieve efficiency?
- What interventions will you apply when supervising learning through (CSCL)?
- What skills of the computing infrastructure do you have that will oversee the smooth process of using the (CSCL) in teaching language?
- How will the class collaborations be developed when (CSCL) has been adopted since it may discourage the interaction of learners once they are all utilizing computers?
- What other learning opportunities will you avail to your learners once the (CSCL) is introduced in the classroom setting without interfering with the transfer of knowledge in as far as learning language is entailed?
- How will students who have a passive or maladjusted direction be guided through the whole introduction and adaptation of (CSCL)?
- Will there be any form of teaching to enable learners to understand how learning based on a technology form differs from the traditional lecture method?
- How will students who will depict a negative attitude be handled to embrace the new form of learning and gain from it in a positive way?
- What form of new learning strategies and self-directed learning will be used as the initial step to giving guidance when (CSCL) is being utilized?
- What methods will be applied to make the learners conscious of the valuable rational experiences that will occur once they engage, show interest and efforts in learning through (CSCL)?
- How will the confidence and motivation of learners be boosted to adapt to the (CSCL) form of learning since this may be difficult to attain with the use of digital learning?
- In what way will foundation of the language learning be attained when students are given the opportunity to learn through (CSCL)?
- How will the students’ courage be built once (CSCL) is introduced as a way to learning the language?
- Will the traditional learning styles still be used with (CSCL) when directing learning in the classroom setting?
- In what way will students with low language proficiency be assisted to express themselves in a short span of time in the (CSCL) since they require more time to adapt to the environment?
- How will support from the administration in the learning institution be obtained to support fully the use of (CSCL) in teaching language in the classroom setting?
- What form of challenges do you predict in as far as the implementation of the Computer Supported Collaborative Learning is concerned?
- How will the various learners who come from different backgrounds regarding culture and learning abilities be assisted to effectively adopt the Computer Supported Collaborative Learning?
- What student-centered activities can be used or developed to effectively and efficiently ensure that the Computer Supported Collaborative Learning is a success when it entails the acquisition of knowledge in learning languages?
- What form of evaluation will you conduct to students before the Computer Supported Collaborative Learning is introduced to ascertain the type of attitudes they will have towards it?
- How do you intend to change the style of teaching to fit in the Computer Supported Collaborative Learning for learners to gain entirely at the end of the lesson?
- What learning needs do you have that the computer supported collaborative learning will satisfy in as far as learning of language is concerned?
- How will the introduction of (CSCL) affect your socio-cultural skills?
- Will there be efficiency in the development of expertise when (CSCL) is introduced in learning?
- How frequently do you use the website?
- In what way will collaborative abilities be enhanced and developed by you as a result of learning by the use of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning? (A collaborative ability is such as problem-solving skills).
- In what way will the use of (CSCL) assist you to be prepared for the workforce upon leaving school? (There can be the development of skill such as creativity).
- What are the benefits of learning a foreign language?
- What other skills and knowledge will be improved once (CSCL) in learning the language is introduced and fully implemented in learning of language?
- Will there be any form of reduced pressure on the time given to learn certain concepts or contents in the whole language being learned?
- Are there any forms of enhancement in communication skills that will be achieved once (CSCL) begins to be utilized in the classroom setting?
- Will the use of (CSCL) in learning affect the ability to express yourself since it will be a completely different and new form of having to express yourself in a new language within the shortest time?
- How will you achieve self-control when (CSCL) is applied in learning the language?
- Will the innovative high-technology learning have any effect on the way you will adapt to the learning environment?
- If more personalized interaction with the instructors is given, how will it support you to be more self-directed? (Answer if you are a passive student).
- Will the Computer Supported Collaborative Learning through platforms such as video conferencing assist you in accomplishing other tasks that you would not complete on your own? If so, then how will it be possible?
- In what way will the use of (CSCL) in learning language affect your writing skills on various platforms?
- How do you perceive the level of motivation towards learning the language to be upon the introduction of the Computer Supported Collaborative Learning?
- In what way will you counter the feeling of anxiety that may be generated or develop once the commencement of learning language through the use of (CSCL) begins?
- What other learning gaps or interests do you have that you believe will be fully satisfied or met by the use of (CSCL) in learning of language?
- In what way will your practice and awareness of language be enhanced upon beginning learning by (CSCL)?
- Will the use of (CSCL) be interesting to you and if yes, or no, in what ways?
- Do you perceive to improve your overall performance in language once the Computer Supported Collaborative Learning is introduced as a form of learning in the classroom setting?
- What form of guidance would you want to be given by the teachers once the Computer Supported Collaborative Learning has been introduced in the learning environment?
DeVellis, R. F. (2016). Scale development: Theory and applications (Vol. 26). Sage publications.