Please answer each of the below questions. Does not need to be in essay form. Can use as many sources as you want. Each of the responses should be one or more paragraphs long.
1) List and discuss three major types of signaling pathways, which have been conserved throughout evolution, resulting in substantial homology within distantly-related organisms.
2) Describe the structure of mitochondria and the reactions they employ to degrade pyruvate and generate ATP.
3) Explain how the electron transport chain works and how it generates the proton-motive force. Then explain how the proton-motive force is used to synthesize ATP.
4) Describe the structure of chloroplasts and discuss the significance of light-absorbing pigments.
5) Explain the mechanism of chemiosmosis, which occurs in both mitochondria and chloroplasts.
6) Compare carbon fixation in C3 and C4 plants.
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