A concentrated HNO3 (MW = 63.0128 g/mol) solution is 70.0 %wt HNO3 and has a density of 1.42 g/mL. How many milliliters of the concentrated HNO3 solution must be diluted to obtain 1000.0 mL of 1.60 M HNO3?Show work
Choose 3 different standard flows. And the strength of these three flows will be 12, 17 and 47.
Derive expressions for the stream and potential functions of the combined flows and obtain expressions for velocity components and distributions over one stream line of your choice.
1- Use a graphical method to sketch the streamlines for the combined flow, showing the position of any stagnation points.
2- Also, assuming you can change the position of the flows relative to each other, how will this affect the resulting stream lines? Try only one change.
3- Obtain and comment on the pressure distribution in the flow field at any stream line of your choice.
What foods are good sources of unrefined complex carbohydrates? Unrefined simple carbohydrates?
Experiment 2.3: What Household Substances are Acidic or Basic? (Refer to Attachment for background information)
In the following experiment, you will be using pH test strips to determine the pH of various household substances. pH stands for “potential hydrogen” and is broken into a scale of 1 – 14 to indicate the acidity or basicity of a solution. Generally speaking, more hydrogen ions in a solution correlates to lower pH values, and more acidic solutions. Conversely, fewer hydrogen ions correlates to higher pH values, and more basic solutions. 7 is located in the middle of this number scale, and represents neutral solutions.
Note that many strong acids and bases do not have a pH that is indicated on this scale. For example, lead battery acid has a pH that is below one.
Refer to the color key provided in the module with your pH test strips to determine which color corresponds to each pH value. In this way, pH paper allows scientists to determine to what degree a substance is acidic or basic and can provide an approximate pH value.
5 mL 4.5% Acetic Acid (Vinegar), C2H4O2
(3) 100 mL Beakers
(3) 250 mL Beakers
10 mL Graduated Cylinder
(10) pH Test Strips
5 mL Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda)Solution, NaHC)3
*4 Liquid, Household Solutions
*Water Source (Jug or Sink)
*You Must Provide
Procedure (See Pictures on page 3 and 4 forInitial and Final results in order to answer post-lab questions)
1. Find four household substances to test (ex: grape juice, lemon juice, dishwashing liquid, milk, tomato juice, shampoo, corn starch solution, etc.). You will use the vinegar (acidic) and sodium bicarbonate (basic) solution provided in your kit as standards.
2. Predict the pH of each substance before testing with a pH strip. Record your predictions in Table 4 for each substance.
3. Use the permanent marker to label each of the beakers with the name of one of the six solutions. It does not matter which size beaker is used for the different solutions.
4. Use the graduated cylinder to measure and pour five mL of vinegar into the beaker labeled “Vinegar”.
5. Repeat Step 4 with each of the five remaining solutions and beakers.
6. Measure the pH of each solution by dipping the pad of the pH strip into the solution for 5 – 10 seconds and comparing it with the pH test strip key (located in the lab module). Record your results in Table 4 for each substance.
Table 4: pH Values of Common Household Substances
Substance pH Test Strip Color pH Value
1- Acetic Acid (Vinegar) Orange 5
2- Sodium Bicarbonate Solution (Baking Soda) Dark Green 8
3 – Lemon Juice Orange 5
4 – Milk Light Green 6
5 – Tomato Juice Orange 5
6 – Grape Juice Orange 5
1. What is the purpose of determining the pH of the acetic acid and the sodium bicarbonate solution before testing the other household substances?
2. Name two acids and two bases commonly found in a grocery store.
3. What similarities do you observe about the acids you identified other than their pH measurements? What similarities do you observe about the bases you identified other than their pH measurements? What can you conclude generally about acids and bases that a person uses regularly based on these similarities?
In this summative assessment you will write a report that describes the effects of phenylephrine, a common “over the counter” (OTC) drug, which is used as a decongestant, on the cardiovascular system (heart and blood vessels). The effects of receptor antagonists used during your laboratory session in week 10 will be important in interpreting the mechanism of action of phenylephrine. Use the results from the laboratory to illustrate your report. Your report should be a maximum of 500 words in length excluding figures, tables and references. When preparing your report, please use the following template.
1. INTRODUCTION (around 100 words)
Include the following: a brief description of the physiology of the cardiovascular system; the neurotransmitters and receptors that mediate the activity of the heart and blood vessels; and the aims of the report.
2. METHODS (around 100 words)
Describe how you conducted the simulated experiment (species used, drugs and doses). Identify in full (no abbreviations) the units for each of the measurements taken. In each experiment you are asked to select “normal” set up as opposed to “pithed” setup. Explain what the “pithed” setup is and what potential advantage could be gained by selecting the “pithed” setup. Conversely what is the major disadvantage of using the “pithed” setup?
3. RESULTS (around 100 words)
Describe the effect of phenylephrine on blood pressure and heart rate and how these parameters are affected by prazosin and propanolol pre-treatments. You should illustrate any changes with appropriately labelled figures. Make sure that your figure legends adequately describe the content (not the meaning) of your figures.
4. DISCUSSION (around 150 words)
Comment on your findings from the experiment (in the context of previously published work). What can you conclude from the experiment? Additionally, comment on the pharmacology of phenylephrine (a nasal decongestant) and the value of it being administered locally (as a nasal spray) as opposed to being taken orally (as a tablet).
5. CONCLUSION (around 50 words)
Write a short, simple take home message about phenylephrine from your study.
Include any references that you have used in your report. Ensure that they are cited correctly in the text and in the correct format in the reference list. Further advice on referencing can be found in the “References” document in the Resources block under the Year 2 Class information and in the Assessment block under MP220.
A 22-year-old woman reports being “sick with the flu” for the past 8 days. She is vomiting several times every day, having difficulty keeping liquids or food down, and has been using more than the recommended dose of antacids in an attempt to calm the nausea. She has become severely dehydrated. After fainting at home, she was taken to a local hospital. An arterial blood gas sample was drawn and then an IV was placed to help rehydrate her. The arterial blood gas revealed the following:
Test Result Normal levels
pH 7.57.35 – 7.45
PaCO2 40 mm Hg 35-45 mm Hg
PaO2 95 mm Hg 80-100 mm Hg
SaO2 97% 95-100%
HCO3- 32 meq/liter 22-26 meq/liter
How would you classify the patient’s acid-base disturbance and explain why?
Given the case study, what are the possible factors causing this acid-base disturbance? Explain the pathophysiology created by these factors.
How would the renal and respiratory systems try to compensate for this acid-base disturbance?
What pharmacologic intervention is commonly used to correct this acid-base disturbance? Describe the pharmacological actions.
Describe the educational needs for this patient and what your approach will be.
If you were to open the entire molecule along the hydrogen bonds, what bases would the left side attach to? The right side?