Summary involves careful analysis of the meaning and function of each claim/point:
A âSaysâ sentence tells what the author is claiming/stating/saying
Example:Rodrigues argues that a âscholarship boyâ does not fit with the Romantic definition of working-class.
A âDoesâ sentence tells how the claim is functioning in the strategy of the whole essay – trying to do.
Example:Rodrigues sets up a related definition and tries to convince his reader that it does not apply to him by offering three examples as evidence.
Verbs for Summary (âSaysâ Words)
Use attributive tags when stating what a text/an author is saying.
Good Example: âRodriguez illustrates his pointâ¦â
Bad Example: âRodriguez talks about howâ¦â
- Claiming: claims, argues, contents, submits, asserts, declares, proclaims, advocates, alleges, holds, thinks, believes, reasons, maintains, insists, demands, requests
- Criticizing: criticizes, challenges, opposes, contests, denies, repudiates, renounces, rejects, accuses, charges, attacks, protests, doubts, denies
- Praising: praises, commands, compliments, worships, exalts
- Suggesting: suggests, recommends, proposes, hypothesizes, guesses, speculates, posits
- Implying: implies, hints, intimates, insinuates, hints
- Questioning: questions, asks, wonders
- Demonstrating: demonstrates, illustrates, reveals
- Conceding: concedes, admits, acknowledges, grants
- Deemphasizing: underplays, downplays, minimizes
- Warning: warns, cautions
âDoesâ Words & Phrases
Summaries explain not only what the author or text is saying (the âsaysâ), but also how the author or text is doing it (the âdoesâ).
The text/evidence/author ______________
- Gives an example
- Introduces a new issue or argument
- Reveals personal information about the author by
- Compares two things
- Contrasts two things
- Summarizes or paraphrases an outside source
- Paints a picture/describes
- Uses emotional language/appeals to readerâs emotions
- Admits a possible counter-argument
- Restates or sums up
- Points out problems with the opposition
- Demonstrates personal knowledge of the issue by
- Offers an initial hypothesis/makes a guess by
- States a position
- Explains the logic of an argument
- Cites an authority
- Uses an analogy