Career Options After 12th Grade


When it comes to career options after 12th, there are a wide range of options that you can choose from provided you scored good marks in class XII. While some of you might take up academics to build your career in the scholastic discipline, others might love to experiment with vocational courses after sorting through a wide range of career alternatives. Choices in the professional field include technical courses like engineering and architecture.

It is important that students choose a suitable stream in class 12 to ensure that they are able to join the career of their choice after they complete the 12th grade. Very often students don’t know what career they want to take up and hence they choose a wrong stream in school. It is better to consult a career counselor before deciding on the subjects you take up in school.

If you have humanities or arts background, you can qualify for a variety of creative courses as your career options after 12th. If you are planning further studies, take up a bachelor’s degree in any of the arts subjects. You could even learn a foreign language and aim for an interpreter’s job in the consulates and embassies. Some of the choices in this regard are French, Spanish, German, Russian, Japanese or Chinese. You can even prepare for the Indian Civil Service Examinations or State Civil Service Examinations. Besides these, there are courses in advertising, journalism, mass communication, media studies, business management, performing arts, travel and tourism and more.

There are a lot of career options after 12th if you belong to the commerce stream. For instance, you can take up company secretary course, chartered accountancy, computer studies or even business management. When it comes to qualifying for chartered accountancy, you should be aware of the fact that every year only a marginal percentage of candidates qualify for these examinations. This is why a lot of students choose to do Bachelor’s of Commerce with a specialization in computers before going for CA degree.

If you are a student from the science stream, there are actually hundreds of career options. You can do engineering in any streams such as mechanical, civil, metallurgy, computers, electronics, aeronautics, maritime and others. These are the options that require a combination of physics, chemistry and mathematics in class XII. For students aspiring to take up biochemistry, biotechnology, microbiology, agricultural or dairy science, medicine or dental studies, subjects such as biology, chemistry and physics are required in Class 12. One of the major advantages as to why students take up science is that they can switch to humanities or even commerce later on.

Students after passing their 12th grade examinations can also take up vocational courses in the field of occupational therapy, physiotherapy, nursing, computers, hotel management, hospitality management or business administration. One of the principal courses in demand these days is the MBA course – Master’s of Business Administration. Further, outside the ambit of schools and colleges, enthusiastic students can take up courses in fashion technology, jewelry design, aviation, radio jockey, packaging or industrial design. It is important to get into the career of your choice to ensure that you enjoy work.


Source by Saurabh Nanda

Pastoral Counseling Training Prospects Online


Many people feel more comfortable seeking advice from a counselor affiliated with their religion. Being able to give advice directly related to a specific religion can be learned through online study. Students who have considered studying religious studies or counseling can combine their interests into one degree. Doing this allows students to train in pastoral counseling. This degree field leaves students with an assortment of online schooling opportunities.

The career focuses not only on the therapy of an individual but assisting them in their spiritual needs and development. This field places importance on the pastoral relationship that takes place through counseling. Professionals have a responsibility to have a solid understanding of the central meanings of life, and its principles based on their religious beliefs because they are representing their faith through counseling. Schooling trains students to have an integrated approach by combining traditional religious training with psychological thought processes. This design is set up to enable students to function as traditional counselors in a religious setting. Traditionally, ministers, rabbis, and priests fulfilled the role of a pastoral counselor. These individuals still make up the majority of pastoral counselors but the circle is widening to include professionals that have strictly earned a degree in this form of counseling.

Online training can be earned in a couple of ways depending on the personal career a student is striving for. Students that want to become ministers and rabbis will find that seminary school is the best option. Inside a seminary program students can focus on both pastoral studies and counseling. Students can also follow programs from a bachelor’s degree to a doctoral degree in seminary. If seminary is not the path students want to take there are some colleges that offer online training. Students need to keep in mind that some schools do not meet counseling licensing requirement. To gain licensure students may have to precede or follow up a program with more schooling. It is recommended that students research school requirements fully to obtain the right amount of training.

To step onto the right educational path outside of seminary school, students can enter counseling degrees at the undergraduate level to prepare them for master’s level work. Undergraduate training can be gained in areas that include marriage, family, social work, and clinical psychology. These degree programs give students knowledge in fundamental counseling procedures that they can build upon at the graduate level.

A popular choice is to continue education to receive a doctor of education in pastoral counseling. Since students already have a solid counseling background at this point coursework varies to include both pastoral courses and counseling courses. Counseling the addicted, biblical theology, empowering people, leadership, and management are a few courses that students may work through. A large amount of colleges require students to complete an internship. Internships provide students with practical and real world experience that is useful in future jobs. To finish out training students are required to write and defend a dissertation paper based on their understanding of both psychology and pastoral work. With this degree many students work in educational settings or set up their own private practice.

Counseling in this capacity trains individuals to work alongside their clients to help them get through personal issues. Students that are interested in counseling and working with people who share their faith should consider enrolling in a degree program. An accredited online degree in pastoral counseling is a perfect opportunity for students that want to follow their religious faith into a career outside of the traditional minister or rabbi role.

DISCLAIMER: Above is a GENERIC OUTLINE and may or may not depict precise methods, courses and/or focuses related to ANY ONE specific school(s) that may or may not be advertised at

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Source by Renata McGee

ITEC Past Exam Papers – Revision Questions


Using ITEC past exam papers can be very beneficial for all students studying any of the ITEC subjects. Unfortunately ITEC do not provide past exam papers or questions so you must seek an alternative revision resource that provides revision questions similar to those found on ITEC’s past exam papers.

ITEC’s theory papers are in the format of multiple choice questions so using these type of questions while you are revising is advisable as it prepares the student for the format of their actual exam paper.

Using Anatomy and Physiology as an example, the following are some sample multiple choice questions;

01. 2 pairs of centrioles separate during which phase of mitosis?
a) Prophase – Answer
b) Anaphase
c) Telophase
d) Metaphase

02. What muscle lowers the mandible and opens the mouth?
a) Lateral pterygoid – Answer
b) Medial pterygoid
c) Orbicularis oculi
d) Masseter

03. What is the function of the right lymphatic duct?
a) Drains lymph into the head, neck and torso
b) Collects lymph from the right side of the body
c) Collects lymph from the right side of the head and neck, chest and right arm – Answer
d) Collects lymph from the left side of the body

Whatever ITEC exam you are revising for, whether it is Beauty Therapy or Reflexology, you will need to have a study plan in place which includes learning these questions everyday.

I would recommend you learn a number of questions each day, about 20-30 depending on how busy you are. And even if you are very busy on a particular day, learning just 5 questions is ok, 5 is better than nothing at all. Remember, the key to your exam success with this method is consistency. Repeat this process every day and your confidence in the subject you are learning will soon grow.


Source by Georgina Ryan

What Are Electronic Health Records?


Electronic health records, also called electronic patient records or computerized patient records, are collections of patients’ medical history over a period of time within an institution. These histories have been recorded digitally and include complete information pertinent to a patient’s health: demographics, past medical records, vital signs, medications, immunizations, progress reports, health problems, laboratory and radiology data.

An EHR, as electronic health records are more commonly known, can be shared by various health care facilities through a connection of networks and EHR software. This means that a patient’s records in a New York City hospital can immediately be forwarded to a clinic in Los Angeles without anyone having to go to the trouble of mailing paper print-outs. The use of electronic health records is intended to make work in the health care industry easier by making information more accessible and streamlined. Electronic health records also document other care-related activities like quality management, evidence-based decision support and outcomes reporting. The electronic health record aims to strengthen ties between health care workers such as doctors, nurses and clinicians and their respective patients. This is because the quick and easy accessibility of data is seen to help health providers make reliable, more informed decisions regarding their patients, thus allowing them to give improved services.

An EHR makes medical situations better through several ways. One is that electronic health records reduce the chances for medical errors because they contain all information necessary, which in turn creates more accurate and clearer reports. For example, EHR software includes features such as Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE), which is a virtual list for doctors to follow upon prescribing drugs to their patients. This lessens the risks on a patient’s health and in the long run, saves a lot of money. Additionally, electronic health records minimize the need for duplicate tests, effectively cutting down on delays that may affect a patient’s treatment and medication.

There have been several issues surrounding the idea of electronic health records. Its disadvantages include extravagant starting costs and a worry about decreased productivity on the part of health care workers as most doctors and nurses are reluctant to spend time learning a new system. More pressing matters regarding electronic health records are the concerns regarding privacy and security of patient records, especially in sensitive cases such as psychotherapy sessions, as well as legal liability in the implementation of EHR software systems that may malfunction.

However, the use of electronic health records continues to be seen as the trend towards vast improvements in the health care system nationally. It is viewed to reduce overhead costs by a large percent in the long run, provide access to previously hard-to-obtain data that will help in research and in evidence-based medicine, possibly unite all health care institutions under one system in the future for better coordination and record-keeping. Looking at the bigger picture, electronic health records are considered to be the answer to the long-term preservation of medical histories and ultimately, will benefit everyone in the field of health care.


Source by Adam Pounders

The Wedding Reception Table Centerpiece – How To Decide Who Takes One Home


Everybody expects to be taking some sort of wedding favor home but the wedding reception table centerpiece is a favor that is especially coveted. Making a game of who gets the centerpiece should get more of your guests involved in the games and it is an easy way to clean up some of the tables. Giving the centerpieces as a prize ensures that everyone has the same chance to take one home. Here are some ideas for giving away your wedding reception table centerpiece.

1. Make a list of questions and award the winner of each one with a centerpiece. Your MC or DJ could ask the questions and the first one to answer correctly gets to choose their centerpiece. The questions could be about the bride and groom or any subject you like. You could also give each guest a pen and paper to write their answers then go from 1st place to 5th place or more.

2. Probably the most popular way that brides give away the centerpiece is a simple one. Each guest is given a number and throughout the evening numbers are called out and the person with a matching number is the winner.

3. Let’s make a deal style give away would require a guest to produce a particular item. It could be a 1976 nickel, business card or 10 dollar bill, whatever the item you choose, if the guest can pull it from their pocket or purse they win.

4. The centerpiece could simply go to the oldest person at the table. Or some other specific like the person that traveled the furthest to get there or has the closest birthday to the wedding date or that of the bride or groom.

5. The DJ can announce a game of pass the dollar bill. Just like musical chairs the bill is passed around the table and when the song stops the person holding the dollar bill is the winner.

6. Sell raffle tickets to each interested guest picking numbers during the reception and awarding the centerpiece to the winner. Money from the sale could help the bride and groom pay for their honeymoon or some other need.

7. Hold an auction, you do not need to do this with each centerpiece but could sell off a few. All the proceeds go towards the newlyweds honeymoon or some other good cause.

8. Mark the bottom of one chair at each of the tables, sometime during the reception you could announce that the person in the chair, to the right of the chair or whatever gets to take home the centerpiece.

Naturally not everyone will want to take home a centerpiece, but many women at the reception will be wondering whether they can or not.

You could simply give your reception table centerpieces to family and friends that have been supportive, or members of your wedding party. Donating them to a local nursing home or hospital is another option.

The type of centerpiece you use on the wedding reception tables will help you decide how you want to distribute them. The ideas here are to provide fun ways to get your guests involved and having fun. Make your wedding reception unique and memorable by getting all the guests involved and having a good time.


Source by Belinda Nelson

The Importance of An Application Letter


A well organize application letter will trigger for you to be hired in the job you are applying. The application letter most of the time is also called as cover letter, serving as the front page of your resume. This letter, since it is being passed to the HR (Human Resource Department) or Personnel Officer of a company it is also one of the types of business letter.

We write an application letter because we wanted to know that the person the company searching for the job is the best and perfect for the position. Therefore, it is inevitable to write an application letter in applying for a job. But what is really the importance of an application letter?

In writing an application letter, it should be done with an extra-ordinary attention because this letter is not an ordinary one. It looks like you are selling yourself to the company because they will be paying you amount if you will get hired. This is why you should take considerable time in formulating your application letter for you to be bought by the buyer. That your intellectual know how is almost or exactly fitted on the vacant or available position.

In selling a product, the presentation of advertisement and other resource information about the product should be convincing and reliable so as to be bought by buyers in the market. The same with the application letter, since you are selling your self to the company and the application letter serves as the advertisement and reliable information about yourself, it should be convincing for the HR or the Personnel officer to go over your resume for further evaluation.

In addition, since this is a letter, you should be careful on your sentence structure. The simple subject and verb agreement should be followed accordingly not to mention other grammatical sentences boosting your knowledge and skills you are offering. The organization and structure should also be given attention.

Though every part of this letter is important, the employer is eying on the part where you are stating some of your experiences relevant to the company’s needs in the operation of their businesses. You should be careful in structuring this part because in here lies if they will go over your resume for further evaluation.

Before you create your own application letter, have sometime to ask some of your friends or you can surf over the internet. In here lies more information on how to make an application that could stimulate your reader and be hired for the desired position you are applying.


Source by Jhaye Fabros

EMR – Significance and Uses


EMR – electronic medical record is a computer based application needed to store the medical details of the patient. In fact, it has played a crucial role in making the system paperless. With storage, easy retrieval is possible at the hospital without wasting a single second.

The major benefit is the reduced cost involved in keeping the records. With computer displays, the health care provider can prescribe the drugs according to the illness and drug allergies. The information is accessible from any part of the globe that supports this system.

With the help of electronic medical data, considerable time is reduced in looking for paper records. Even, duplication of work is reduced to zero due to data storage. The patient gets immediate attention for chronic illness. Ray of hope also arises as there is improvement in monitoring the quality of care.

“Prevention is better than cure.” This fact is aptly supported by EMR. It enhances preventive health capabilities with the prudent applicability of the system. The consequent diagnosis and possible treatment can improve chances of living.

The system is quite helpful in all the major areas of care; emergency, community, consumer, chronic and acute care. The clinical orientation in these areas is significant for health care management of patient. There is a complete foolproof need of implementing the system structure so that it lasts long without any hassles.

Before installing pre-required software, it is vital to decide about the plan of action. This requires process planning and analysis. The medical legislation needs to be understood. With the consequent identification of the major stakeholders, the last step is to give final touches by collecting and recording the information.

Since it has computer focused usability, the role of IT professionals is very significant. The job is not limited to installation. Data migration, demographic confirmation and most importantly training play an elementary role to procure proper execution and success of EMR.

EMR has facilitated improved registration and scheduling procedures. Precision in accessing and reviewing the lab results enhances chances of proper medication and prescriptions without loss of time and energy. The fully automated system has been fruitful in reducing the burden of retrieval of necessary medical records.


Source by Neerja R Mehta

Nursing Tips – How to Organize and Prioritize Your Shift


To successfully and efficiently complete your daily tasks in your nursing shift, it is essential to organize and prioritize every time. The first thing that you have to understand is that things do not always go as planned. Rather, it is the exception when everything falls right into schedule. Because you are always expecting the unexpected, it will be easier for you to readjust your plans and not panic and get stressed out at the slightest changes. You will feel cooler and lighter in your discount landau scrubs. You should always have a Plan B even if it is just a vague plan.

Organizational and time management skills are invaluable skills for nurses and yet there are a lot of nursing schools that do not include these essential tools in their required courses, and only offer it as extension courses. Below are some ways to develop good organizational and time management skills.

Preparing at home

Being in the comfort of your home and away from the high intensity of your work environment, you will be able to think more clearly and objectively. While at home, you should already start organizing the basics of your shift. What you can do is try to map out a day in your life as a nurse. In a paper or word processor divide your shift into two hour increments and fill up the projected patient meal times, AM care, HS care, and so on. Include medication schedules such as ac, pc, and hs medications if there are any. Also put in when your patients are likely to go for therapy or tests and when MDs make their rounds. Also consider when new admits and discharges are likely to surge during the shift and what part of visiting hours gives you some time to catch up on tasks you left behind. The goal is to know when you will be busiest and when the tasks slow down so that you know how to readjust in any situation or circumstance.

Organizing at work

It is best to arrive early for your shift so that you have the time to assess the intensity of the previous shift and prepare yourself accordingly, whether for chaos or for downtime. So that you can anticipate what will ensue more or less in your shift, listen during rounds and reports on how busy the staff is going to be, the general level of acuity of that day’s patients, who might have time to help you should you get overwhelmed, patients who require more of your time, what assessments, treatments and procedures you could learn from if you had the time, new patients and their diagnosis and treatments that you need to look into, time specific events such as meetings, things that you want to put off until the end of the shift or hope you don’t need to do, and things that can be delegated to an LPN or nursing aide. Prioritize things that are difficult or you dislike so that you can get them out of the way. The more you put them off, the more they will be a burden for you for the rest of the day. Once you’re done with the hard tasks, things will be generally lighter from there.


Source by Brent McNutt

SWOT Analysis for Job Descriptions


Project Management Job Specification SWOT Analysis Take a clean piece of paper – with the job specification and any other details about the organisation in front of you, start to jot down your thoughts about the following;

Strengths Top 5 Qualities

Make a note of the top five qualities of the position that appeal to you; what is it about the roles and responsibilities that have made you want to apply for the post? If one of the qualities is just that you like the idea of working for that particular organisation, make a note of that too. Is it the kind of projects you will be working on or a particular business focus that you would like to pursue?


Make a note about anything in the job specification that shows it is consistent with your thinking about this kind of post – does the salary level reflect the position well? Are the roles and responsibilities consistent with this type of post? Are the roles and responsibilities and objectives achievable for this level of post? Where there are inconsistencies; drop those thoughts into the weaknesses side of the SWOT.


Does the job specification meet your expectations in terms of planned career development; salary level; level of responsibility; appropriate level of challenge or stretch; feature enough of your current skillsets; feel aspirational; the organisation sounds like one you would enjoy working within; how does reading through the specification make you feel?


Make a note of all the positive things you know about the organisation; consider conducting some research to see if you can find out more about how the organisation is regarded in the marketplace, by its employees, its suppliers etc. Is there any information where you can get a better feel for the organisation’s resources, assets and people; the processes and systems; the project management culture?

Opportunities Challenges

Most often people look for a new position because they are ready for a new challenge; make a note of all the challenges you think this position may give to you. It is worth making a note of all the Known challenges i.e., those that are evident from the job specification and also the Unknown challenges, i.e., challenges you think this position may bring.


Make a note of what you believe to be the opportunities available to you by working for this particular organisation.

Career Aspirations

This is an opportunity to make a more detailed note of how this position fits with your career aspirations, for example if the role gives you a larger team responsibility or complexity of projects to manage.

Weaknesses Ambiguity

Now its time to think about the job specification a little more objectively. Make a note of any areas of the job specification that are unclear or make little sense.


What areas of the job specification – the roles and responsibilities – are the least attractive to you? We know that any job is likely to have some roles and responsibilities that we don’t like performing but how much of this position is unattractive to you honestly?


Which areas of the job specification are you unexperienced, unqualified or unskilled to do? Start by thinking of those areas where you have no experience at all, then those where you have a little.


Make a note of any concerns you have about the organisation that are known to you at the moment. It is also worth making a more general note of what would not appealed to youorganisation wise at this point too i.e., client site working, shift work etc

Threats Issues

Now thinking even more objectively – even negatively in some cases – make a note of all the issues you can think of that means this position is not right for you. Is the skillset required? The location of where you would be working? The salary level on offer? Often when a job seeker is making plans to move into a new position, the more negative side of a potential new job are often overlooked. Often this might mean taking the job for all the wrong reasons and moving on soon after the start date – not a great career move!


And finally, are there any showstoppers that would mean you would not enjoy working for this organisation? Also think about any reasons why the organisation may not consider you a likely candidate for the job.

The SWOT analysis for job specifications is designed to get you really thinking about a new project manager job before you start the process of applying for it.


Source by Lindsay Scott

Earth Day Senior Citizen Activities Using Plastic Water Bottles


Earth Day will be celebrated April 22nd around the world- as it has been since it was founded on April 22, 1970 by U.S. Senator Gaylord Nelson. This year I am planning a few special “Earth friendly” Earth Day projects for the Horticultural Therapy and Crafting classes I teach to Seniors- although we reuse and recycle household items in our programs year-round.

Most of my students are still pretty frugal since they lived through the Depression and learned to make do with very little during that time. I’ve been told stories about how their Moms would make their underwear out of flour sacks, home gardens that provided most of their food during the war and how their Mothers would take a look at a formal gown in the store window and create an exact replica by hand when they did not have the money for store-bought clothes.

As part of my ongoing classes I already reuse and recycle a lot of commonly discarded household items including plastic water bottles, paper juice and milk cartons, gallon milk jugs, 2 liter plastic bottles, paper and plastic egg cartons, egg shells, paper towel tubes, brown paper bags and newspaper to name a few.

This article will focus on projects that reuse plastic drinking bottles. Plastic drinking bottles have a profoundly negative impact on our environment and are becoming a bigger problem each day. The World Wildlife Federation states that 1.5 million tons of plastic is used in bottling 89 billion liters of water each year. This process assists in the draining of the world’s fossil fuels and creates tons of trash that will take 70 to 450 years to degrade in our landfills. So every bottle we keep out of the landfill helps future generations. And we can all feel good about that!

Here are a few of the fun projects my classes have done in the past year to reuse all or part of a plastic drinking bottle:

  • Game Board Markers– Drinking bottle caps can be used as game pieces for home made Bingo game markers. I created Butterfly Garden Bottle Cap Bingo that used bottle caps as spot markers on the Bingo cards. The Bingo Cards were printed on 8.5 x 11 sheets and were laminated using shelf liner vinyl- so they are reusable. Bottle caps were decorated with fun flower and bug stickers. Seniors love their Bingo so this was a great way to teach my students the names of the different plants that grow well in our area that will draw butterflies to their garden.
  • Paper mache vases-This activity actually reuses two common items that go into the landfill every day- plastic bottles and newspaper. We covered the plastic drinking bottles with several layers of strips of newspaper dipped in liquid starch (you can also use watered down glue or a flour mixture). Then we painted the bottles with acrylic paints and a coat of Modge Podge and decorated them with yarn, beads, buttons, glass beads and other materials. The vases are waterproof so they can be used to display fresh, dried or silk flowers.
  • Seedling or Cutting Starters– First cut the Plastic Bottle in half. Punch a few drainage holes in the bottom of the bottom half of the bottle then fill with soil and plant cuttings or seeds to create inexpensive mini greenhouses. Use the top half of the bottles as small plant cloches to protect tiny seedlings you have planted in seed beds.
  • “Grass Head Guys”- Cut plastic bottle in half. Use the bottom half of the bottle as the base for your “Grass Head Guy” project – later it will be filled with water so the grass will grow. This is a homemade version of a Chia Pet where you fill a knee high stocking foot (can also use recycled pantyhose) with grass seed and soil and it kind of looks like a little potato-head when it is decorated. The Bottom half of the bottle can be decorated in lots of fun ways as the body of your “Grass Head Guy”.

These activities are great for Seniors who live in Assisted Living or Memory Care Residences- although many of my Independent Seniors also enjoyed making the Paper Mache Vases and Seedling Starters. And some of the activities would be great multi-generational projects for children and Seniors to do together.


Source by Stephane McGrady